The Chaplaincy Ministry in Hospital and Prison



CHAPTER 1: PASTORAL CARE                                                                           


CHAPTER 3: CRISIS INTERVENTIONS                                                             

CHAPTER 4: MULTI-CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS                                              



CHAPTER 7: SKILLS                                                                                              

CHAPTER 8: THE PROCESS                                                                                 

CHAPTER 9: SPECIAL POPULATIONS                                                              




The ministry of chaplaincy cannot be divorced from pastoral care giving; therefore, pastoral care givers or chaplains need skills necessary to enable them operate effectively and efficiently as they work in the multicultural environments to work with diversities and multi-faiths or religious pluralisms. Such pastoral care giving needs listening skill to minister to diverse groups of people in hospital or prison settings. Having listening skills as pastoral care givers, enable them to paraphrase, to ask questions, to make interpretation, and to self-disclose during psychotherapeutic administration to patients and family members who are faced with dilemmas and are required to make decision during illness with regard to the end of life situation. In order to work in these settings as chaplains or pastoral care givers, there is a need to develop a personal philosophy and theology of ministry as a guide in order to set standard knowing that there are walls or ethical issues chaplains face in hospitals and prisons. These psychological walls include religions, ethnocentrism, social biases, favoritism, and sexual misconducts. Ethical standards must be developed by pastoral care givers within the philosophy and theology of ministry to deal with these walls for self-development and virtues protection. While pastoral care givers work in hospital settings as chaplains, the issue of crisis intervention with respect to the end of life situation is imminent; therefore, they must be prepared to address these issues using biblical wisdom coupled with ethics; however, they are required to be neutral when it comes to making decision in such matters. They must always protect the patients and family during dilemmas so that no one is hurt in the process concerning the end of life situation. While pastoral care givers work in multicultural environments, they are also obligated professionally to take into consideration multicultural considerations. These multicultural considerations include cultural competence, assessing social identity of the care seekers, assessing social economic status of the care seekers, assessing relational and marital statuses of the care seekers, assessing family relationship of the care seekers, and assessing organizational relationship of the care seekers. There is a need to grow personally as chaplains work in hospital and prison ministries; however, the tendency for positive growth depends on the personality types of the individual in the ministry; nevertheless, there are strategies that the chaplains can adopt to enhance personal growth and development. The chaplains should be present on the job, disengage from the opinions of others, go deeper rather than wider, redefine failures, rewrite their brains, stop struggling, simplify everything, define their values, and have a beginners mind, and show kindness and good manners to patients, family members, and members of the medical team. As chaplains work in hospitals and prisons as pastoral care givers, they play psychological and professional roles in the lives of patients, families, and the medical team. They are psychologically obligated to bring hope, comfort, reconciliation, and healing to patients and family members. They provide provisional nature of knowledge and supportive spiritual care to patients. They serve as members of the patient’s care or medical team. They participate in interdisciplinary education and chart spiritual care interventions in medical charts in hospitals, and they design and lead religious ceremonies during pious activities and the administrations of funeral services during bereavements. Chaplaincy ministry requires other skills necessary for effective functioning in the work environment besides the ones mentioned previously. These skills include reflective listening, strategic planning, assessing, charting, paraphrasing, counseling, summarizing, facilitating responses, and inspiring hope in patients and prisoners. Having the above listed skills, prepared the chaplains to solve problems involving ethical dilemmas as to work with the compromised individuals without hesitations. They also prepare chaplains to work with special populations in jails, prisons, hospitals, and corporate environments to serve as counselors to prisoners, the sick, and employees.



Traditionally, the process of spiritual or pastoral care has been understood to be the nature of the faithful individual who has been called to such ministry; therefore, such individual is tasked with the responsibility to be role model regarding honesty, character, and integrity. It is evidence that you can not give out what you do not have; therefore, pastoral care givers are highly encouraged to be role model as they serve humanity in a realistic work and spiritual environment. Integrity is the key to a successful ministry in the care giving situation. Homer writes, “Traditionally, the church has understood pastoral care to be the nature of the faithful by persons capable and authorized so to do. Gathered in Parishes, followers of Christ are nurtured under the leadership of “Pastoral” figure entrusted with caring for those in his or her charge primarily by means of proclaiming the word, administering the sacraments, and disciplining members’ behavior and attitudes.”[1] Since pastoral care givers are charged with the responsibility to oversee administration regarding the sacraments and disciplining members, they are encouraged to study people they serve as to understand their feelings if that could be possible. They can do so if they learn to understand their own feelings. Westell comments that he realized that to understand other people’s feelings, we have to understand ours first.[2]

            In the pastoral care giving, listening is essential to effective healing of the careseekers; therefore, the subject of listening should be accounted for and taken into consideration by the care givers. In an effort to take this subject of listening
into the care settings, various methodologies or techniques should be adopted by the care givers as to minister to patients holistically. These methodologies or techniques used during the deliberation of services to care seekers include paraphrasing, asking questions, making interpretation regarding the care seeker’s emotional state, and making appropriate self-disclosure.

            In the care giving situation, care givers’ ability to restate or reword what has been stated by care seekers is the necessary path for healing and recovery. In the event of paraphrasing or rewording, the care givers should take into consideration family as a unit and individualism based on nationalities, geographical ties, religious experiences, genders, and cultural values. In my opinion, the educational level of people should be also taking into consideration when communicating to the individual. If the care giver is using diction of words that is beyond the comprehension of the care seekers, the outcome of the visitation might not produce any fruitful result that leads to healing. Diction of words is necessary for use in correlation to nationalities, geographical ties, religious backgrounds, and the cultures the individuals come from. Care givers should be mindful in these areas in order to adequately minister pastoral and spiritual care to patients or care seekers.

            Another area of pastoral care giving is the area of asking questions after a paraphrasing. These questions are clarifying interrogations made by the care givers to enable them to deeply go into the core of the care seekers’ concerns and inquiries. Asking questions will enable the care givers to assess, to evaluate, and to provide therapeutic measure to the patients or care seekers’ needs. In the events of asking question, privacy, personal space, methods of questioning, and the choice of words should be accounted for based on the educational levels of the care seekers. These questions should not be direct questions; instead, they should be open-ended questions to allow the care seekers dive into the problem that will enable the care givers to know what to do in the next ministration of the therapies. Asking questions enables the care givers to know about the individual self, family unit, and what their cultural and family values systems are all about. What kind of religions do they belong to? During questioning, family and social histories are accounted for. Care givers should find detail about what are the root causes of the existing problems.

            Another place of pastoral care giving is the area of interpreting the emotional state of the care seekers. How does this occur? It occurs when the care givers are able to carefully and keenly listen to the care seekers during the deliberation of the conversation. The care givers’ inability to figure out what is going on in the lives of the care seekers will render them useless to give therapeutic healing to the care seekers. Areas that enable the care givers to interpret the emotional state of the individual are paying attention to posture, facial expression and tone of voice, body languages, articulation, and responsiveness of the seekers. How does the individual position himself or herself during the deliberation in the episode of care giving matters? Does the individual sit hopelessly or hopefully? The tendency of his or her posture is interconnected to the facial expression. Does the individual look anxious or well toned excited about the situation he or she faces now? How does the individual speak? Is the individual’s voice clear about what is being explained or is the statement full of ambiguity? Is the care seekers’ body languages appealing or are they doomed? Based on these factors, the articulation and the responsiveness of the seekers become the by-products; therefore, the formers determine the later.

            The area of self-disclosure is the technique used to make the care seeker to be aware that he or she is not the only person who has suffered or is suffering from such problem; however, there are limits that should guide care givers so that the care seekers will not be thrown out of target and become an emphatic listener and the goal is not met in the process of the care seekers’ needs. In guiding against inappropriate self-disclosure, the care givers should be aware that they play special role in society; as the result, they should know what to disclose to care seekers and thereby maintain their positions. Lastly, the care givers should know that it is the care seeker’s needs being met in the process instead of their needs.

            In conclusion, to offer effective pastoral and spiritual care to care seekers; the various techniques used in listening are to be taken into consideration. They include paraphrasing, asking questions, interpreting the emotional state of the patients, and carrying out appropriate self-disclosure.



Personal philosophy of ministry is necessary in that it gives a chaplain focus how he or she treats peoples in various settings such as the hospitals, jails, or in any other institutions. Knowing that chaplains are called to minister to people, ethical issues are imminent.

            Waddell writes, “When Paul refers to the dividing wall of hostility, in my opinion, he is not creating a metaphor out of thin air to describe the racial and ethnic divisions between the Jews, who circumcise their sons and maintain Kosher eating habits, and the Gentiles, who chose not to follow the customs of ancient Judaism, but rather he is making reference to every real wall that stood in the temple, segregating the Jews from every-one else.”[3]

            In chaplaincy ministry, there are walls that stand before the chaplains. The wall of religions, ethnocentrism, social biases, favoritism, sexual misconducts, and many more are ethical issues that pose problems in this ministry. Paul talked about the physical wall that separated the people from reaching certain places in the temple. The creation of these obstacles was the result of what the people were thinking and acting. The chaplains face the same psychological walls while ministering to humanity. They are real problems and they should not be overlooked.

            In the work settings especially in foreign countries, missionaries who serve as chaplains also face walls that might compromise their ethical and moral stabilities. It does not only compromise their ethical issues, but it also has to do with their safety. Wunderink writes, “Missionaries can avoid drawing attention to themselves by using common methods – such as emails or FedEx sending secure messages through encryption or web anonymizers, but Holzonmann said the real risk is what happens after their messages arrive.”[4] The risk of missionaries sending secure messages to clients or patients to oversea, compromises their security and ethics as well. What kind of messages are they sending? Are the massages protecting the patients or are they undermining the government? For the fact that chaplains serve as advocates, they must be willing to suffer persecution. My personal theology of ministry is centered on ethical issues that chaplains might face in the work place. These ethical issues are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. Chaplaincy ministry is a ministry that is not different from pastoral ministry; therefore, the chaplains are anticipated to take heed against ethical issues that might turn their ministry void or without power because ethical issues regarding misconducts involving sexual advances, discrimination involving racial elements, favoritism based on ethnicity, ethnocentrism based on how the chaplains look at other people from other nationalities as he or she considers himself or herself from a dominant culture, and social biases based on social economic factors. Philosophically in my personal theology of ministry, patients in jails, hospitals, or workers in Corporate America should be considered in every sectors of life without prejudice or discrimination based on the following reasons mentioned.

            In Chaplaincy ministry, the tendency for clients of the opposite sex to entice or to seduce the care givers is common; therefore, care givers are advised to take heed against these temptations that exist in the work environment to compromise the ministry in which they are called to minister. In this ministry, chaplains are anticipated to be God fearing knowing that they are the representatives of God to the people they serve. Be aware of one’s identity is also paramount to one’s ethics and morality. How will a client feel if a chaplain makes sexual advances? The clients will get discouraged or resent the care givers in some cases on average. The ability for the chaplains to minister to humanity will be impossible based on these ethical and moral issues that may resonate contingently.

            Another aspect of chaplaincy ministry is the tendency to discriminate based on racial elements or prejudices the care givers might have against some racial or ethnic groupings. For examples, the notion that every African-American is the carrier of guns poses prejudices against racial elements. This kind of generalization does not support any minor or major premises when reasoning deductively or inductively. It is not possible that every African-American is armed robber or gun carrier because you have seen in multiple cases African-American being arrested regarding these issues. Chaplains can enter into ministry with these influences without recognizing these are key ethical issues that he or she might encounter with respect to self-management skills. If the chaplains see the people in regardless of nationalities, ethnicities, or social status (rich or poor); then, the chaplains are able to minister fully to bring psychological, emotional, or spiritual healing to the people whom they serve. This kind of generalization in hospitals, prisons, or Corporate America can hinder the effectiveness of chaplaincy ministry that adversely affects the care seekers or patients.

            Another area of ethical issues is showing favoritism based on ethnicities or family ties. The Bible warns the believers against favoritism recorded in the book of James. Chaplains should not show favoritism to certain groups of people in hospitals or prisons because they are related to such individual. As I said previously, the people chaplains minister to should be viewed as God viewed them. The chaplain’s inadequacy to see the people through the lenses of God will eventually compromise their abilities to fully minister healing to care seekers. Jesus indeed ministered to people without showing favoritism; notwithstanding, he did not compromise with reality. He told the woman that he could not give the children’s bread to dogs. You cannot minister to someone who is not willing to accept your ministry. Jesus did not heal everyone though he had the power to do so because he could not use his power at will without recognizing the willingness of the care seekers. Chaplaincy ministry should take notice of people who want to be served. You cannot attract what you do not honor and you cannot possess what is not for you. We are called to minister to all people as chaplains disregarding ethnic and religious affiliations. The philosophy of pluralistic religious affiliation should be welcomed by the chaplains based on cultural diversities and religions. Chaplains are not to impose their religions on the people they minister to rather they are anticipated to work with people using their theologies concerning which religion they come from.

            Another area of ethical issues that chaplains might encounter is the tendency to feel that their culture is superior to the care seekers whom they are ministering to. This kind of superiority to feel that they are the best or they are on top of things culturally is called ethnocentrism. In the world, America has this pride of ethnocentrism; therefore, this kind of inheritance inherited through this ideological philosophy might influence Americans who minister in a foreign land as chaplains or even in America. These ethical issues can cause chaplains not to minister adequately to patients they happen to meet.

            Another areas of chaplaincy ministry that could hinder chaplains from reaching across board spectra, is the area of social economic status. Is the chaplain only allowed or willing to minister to all people because they are humans not because they are poor or rich? My philosophy is that chaplains should minister to all people based on what God views such people to be not what their status might be. The person you see today serving you can become your boss tomorrow. Life comes in phases and it appears to have faces. These faces can show defeat or victory.

            In conclusion, the areas of sexual misconducts, ethnocentrism, favoritism, social biases, and many others can negatively influence chaplaincy ministry and works; therefore, chaplains are advised to take heed against these things as to show effectiveness in the ministry of their calling.



In the health care chaplaincy, end of life situation that requires decision making process is inevitable because cases of such exist and will eventually show up as terminally or traumatic patients gradually degenerate in their health situation. It is a sorrowful moment in the life of patients and family members who stand on the cross road to make decision full of ethical dilemmas regarding the decision to end the suffering of such individual. There are questions that come to mind regarding taking the life of an individual or removing life support from the individual who has the right to live. There are natures of the case gravitated based on the kind of end of life situation. Someone who is terminally ill and does not have any life support system is different from the one who has life support system. The difference is that the patient who has life support system will eventually die when the support is removed and the one who does not have life support system, but he or she is suffering to the point of death; unfortunately, he or she can die as anticipated, will need some action to end his or her life. The gravity involved in removing life support from the individual who has such is less than the one who requires medical physical action to end his or her life through euthanasia. However, both involve ending the life of someone through some kind of action commensurate with the nature of the case situation and existing problem. In some cases, the sick patient is unaware of the happening around him or her; therefore, family member or other designated responsible party will need to act in this situation if the individual mentally is unable to
make decision on his or her own. In such cases, family members might be called to decide the fate of the patient regarding the end of life situation. If the individual is sound mentally and he or she can make decision based on immediacy, he or she can decide his or her own fate regarding the situation. If the individual is not ready to make decision now, he or she can elect someone to make decision on his or her behalf through advance directive or living will. Whether it is now decision or the decision to be made in the future as the patient degenerates in his or her health situation, the chaplain serves as the neutral force for crisis intervention between the medical team and the patient family members. However, the chaplain should always serve in the position to protect the patient and the family to reach a decision that will not psychologically and emotionally hurt the patient and family members when the patient has died. It is the place where the chaplain needs to pray and to listen to God in order to intervene in such crisis so that the family members or the patient decide what is best option regarding the end of life situation. This is the reason chaplaincy ministry is not just an ordinary ministry, but it is a special and dedicated ministry that involved life action regarding medical as compared to campus ministry that deals with the expression of the faith community.

            Knight writes, “Chaplaincy is a sometimes strange and misunderstood calling – neither wholly of the church or Synagogue nor solely of academic. In this regard, it is distinct from campus ministry, since campus ministry is more typically an expression of faith community.”[5]

            The end of life situation regarding the patient’s and family views, I personally and theologically will intervene taking into consideration ethical standards involved in the process. The negation and decision made regarding the end of life situation will be guided by biblical ethical standard and at the same time respecting theological implications of patients and family members involved. I cannot impose my theology on the patient or family members or the medical team, but I will stand to negotiate best option that appeals to the patient and family members regarding as it pertains to the end of life situation. I must listen and take the time to hear while at the same time caring and offering emotional and psychological help to the patient and family members through counseling until the final decision is reached regarding the status of the patient. Carter writes, “The cross on my uniform is a sign that I will listen, take the time to hear and care, and offer help when all other options seem to lead only to closed doors.”[6]

            The end of life situation is an ethical dilemmas situation that puts both the medical team and family members to a closed door; however, decision must be made regarding the situation. It must be addressed mutually and understandably to decide the fate of the patient involved and patients and family members are not hurt in the process.



There are factors the chaplain needs to know and to learn while working with multicultural society. These factors can be assessed or evaluated to enable the chaplains to offer satisfactory services to care seekers in the realistic environment of multiplicity of problems and confrontations that need attention. These factors of multiculturalism comprise of cultural competence, assessing social identity of the care seekers, assessing social economic status of the individuals in question, assessing relational and marital status, assessing family relationship, assessing community relationship, and assessing organizational relationship. These factors are paramount to have the chaplains prepared to meet people’s psychological, emotional, sociological, physical, and spiritual needs.

            No matter where you work as chaplains, the issue of multiculturalism is certain; as the result, it should not be ignored or else, services won’t be offered to target populations who are in need desperately.

            To work in the multicultural environment, the chaplains should understand and demonstrate what cultural competence is. Cultural competence is the ability to incorporate and to assimilate into diverse cultural ideas and practices. The idea of ethnocentrism should be avoided or discouraged to encourage cultural competence. The word called “cultural competence” must be understood and applied while working as chaplains in any other social groups. For petsy, she recognized Maria’s problem as the result of cultural competence. The effort made for Maria to see her dead baby was the result of Petsy’s cultural competence ability to understand the religious culture of Maria. She recognized this and made an effort to call the nurse to allow Maria to see her dead baby. She went to the extent to unwrap the dead child for Maria to kiss her own baby. Someone lacking cultural competence would consider this to be waste of time since the baby was no more.

            Another area that will enable the chaplains to prepare and to work in the multicultural environment is assessing social identity of people whom they work with. What are their statuses? Are they immigrants, poor, or rich? What are their educational levels? Many people behave in the multicultural environment based on how they were brought up based on family ties and norms. Southwood writes, “L. Argues that narrative inherently contains ethical principles. This argument utilizes social identification where norms are an alternative to “ethics,” and self-categorization theory, where group identification influences the behavior of individuals, sometimes causing them to put the group’s priorities before their own.”[7]

            As chaplains, you will meet people whose family, religious, and national values systems are placed before them; therefore, these values tend to influence their behavior individually. Maria comes from a Catholic background; therefore, emphasis is placed on baptism the most. When her baby died, she requested that her dead baby be baptized. Petsy recognized this and eventually reacted to the situation.

            Another factor chaplains should consider in ministering in multicultural environment is assessing social economic status of the clients. Do they have what can meet their daily needs? In Maria’s case, she did not have health insurance; consequently, the chaplain knew that Maria lacks financial stability. She advocated for Maria to have financial assistance. Multiculturalism can be found everywhere. Howell, writes, “Should congregations be multicultural? Yes. The revelation of John depicts a church in which every tribe, tongue, nation, and people bow before the Lamb.”[8] Pastoral ministry is dealing with people of all races, tribes, nations; therefore, chaplaincy cannot be separated from Pastoral ministry. Working as pastor of a particular church is not different as working as chaplain in institutional ministries like the hospital, prison or jail.

            To be effective as chaplains is the ability to assess the relational and marital status of care seekers. Will the husband be a help or an obstacle to her present problem? If I consult the husband, will the husband be willing to support the effort of her? Recently, I decided to send an invitation to a Christian friend whom I have known for the past 14 years. I decided to consult her fiancé for the invitation before extending it. She told me that she and this man have been separated for the past eight months; therefore, there is no need to consult the man. Truly speaking, she and this man have separated because the man has refused to marry her and she decided not to live in sin again. I decided not to tell the man for the fact that he could become an impediment to her.

            Assessing family and community relationship is another area for effective chaplaincy. Can I consult family members regarding what he or she has told me? Will the family members be helpful to accelerate what I have started with the individual? Since human relations regarding collaboration is good for working relationship, it is necessary to involve family members so that they can also be a help to what you have started. If it is drug addiction issue, you want to get family members involved including the care seekers.

            Assessing organizational relationship is the tool for chaplains to use in helping people with psychological, emotional, physical, and spiritual problems through referral programs. If the chaplain does not have the material items or services to help the care seekers based on the need based, he or she can do referral concerning the situation at hand.

            In conclusion, for a chaplain to prepare to work in the multicultural environment, the chaplains should be cultural competence, is able to assess the social identity of the care seekers, relational and marital status, community relationship, family connection, and organizational affiliation of the care seekers.



Personal strengths and weaknesses generally refer to an individual character in the life situation where he or she needs to solve problems in a realistic work or home environment. What becomes strength can also trigger the proportionality of the weakness the individual has. Strengths and weaknesses are proportionally categorized and aligned with the personality type individuals. These personality types include being analytical, driver, amiable, and expressive. These personality types proportionally produce strengths and weaknesses in the person. In essence, the kind of strengths or weaknesses an individual possesses determines the personality types. For example, someone who is analytical or getting thing done right has strengths of thorough thinking and well disciplined. A thinking individual will also exclude feelings from decision making process. This individual thinks rightly to make decision that can positively affect him or her or the organization. A thorough person is a perfectionist and a disciplined person is rigid or demanding.

            A driver who gets it done is independent, decisive, and determined when it comes to execution. This strength produces weaknesses and results to difficulty of working with others and does take time to consider other people decision. An amiable type personality is supportive, patient, and diplomatic. This individual tends to conform to wishes of others, has no boundaries and such person is not assertive or directive. This person gets along with other people well. An expressive type personality is a good communicator, enthusiastic, and imaginative. He or she is a dreamer, talks too much, and comes on too strong.

            The personality type individuals mentioned above with their corresponding strengths and weaknesses can work well in various circumstantial situations prevailing at the time during chaplaincy ministry or works. I personally find myself as being an amiable individual; for this reason, I agree with people easily; notwithstanding, I brainstorm the situation before coming to agreement. I am not an extreme amiable individual; I could be moderate because I am careful in agreeing with people. Another type personality is that I am a driver who gets things done as scheduled. I have demonstrated this several times in the church, the home, and the school regarding class assignments and projects. One of my strengths is I love learning new things as to add to my knowledge what I already have. This kind of attitudes gets me to know specifics regarding a particular subject area such as the Chaplaincy Ministries. This shapes personal growth and development in one’s life. Knowledge is power; as the result, the level of knowledge you have concerning a particular subject area determines how well you affect that area.

            Insko writes, “My purpose in this address is not to present an integrated or synthesized picture of the emerging shape of religious education. Rather I will merely suggest a few of the ingredients that I think will be part of that shape. The first is personal growth.”[9] He understands that without education or training, personal growth regarding knowledge will be impossible. Going to school to learn new things in the subject area specifics will shape my personal growth and development in these specifics. Specifics are specialized fields of knowledge one desires to go into.

            We live in the world where people are looking for meaning of life; unfortunately, they find it difficult to find the true meaning of life. The true meaning of life knows who the Savior is.

            Snyder writes, “In the last third of life, the validity of a person… the truth and graciousness of their life… depends upon their supply of meanings.”[10]

            In the chaplaincy ministry, what I do to affect people’s lives give meanings to my life and the job that I have been called to execute. My ability to affect psychologically discouraged individual to gain strengths and to recover from their nightmares of frustration, illness, and discouragement weighs my personal strengths and developments.

            Strategies that lead to personal growth and development in chaplaincy ministry or other fields of disciplines include: be present, disengage from the opinions of others, go deeper rather than wider, redefine failures, rewrite your brain, stop struggling, simplify everything, define your values, have a beginner’s mind, show kindness and good manners.[11]

            To be effective in the ministry, I must be present to discharge the duties accorded me. Be present is being opened to learn new things in the ministry. To do the exploits, I must disengage myself from the opinions of others because their opinions could become obstacles to the job that I have been assigned to carry out. I must learn to redefine failures because not every failures can actually be failures. Failures come to correct an individual and to redirect the person in the right direction. If you don’t fail in life, you never rise to a glorious destination. Every disappointment is an appointment for greater doors opening. If war had not come to my country to make me live in refugee camp for fifteen years, I would not have come to the United States of America. Those happenings did not appeal right to my emotion; however, they served as springboards to get me where I am presently.

            In conclusion, what become strengths can produce an adverse effect on the weaknesses one experiences in life. Someone’s weaknesses can become another person’s strengths.



Professional chaplains in the hospital or other sites have professional responsibilities to bringing hope, comfort, reconciliation, and healing to wounded people of all colors in regardless of their nationalities, geographical origins, creeds, religions, and social statuses. To do these, professional chaplains who work in the hospital settings and other sites related to chaplaincy need adequate training to cope with the demands of patients’ need in the time of emergency situation and terminal illness. When religious beliefs and practices are tightly interwoven based on cultural practices and contexts, chaplains constitute a team of powerful reminder to bring healing, sustenance, guidance, and reconciliation of various religious beliefs in a realistic spiritual environment. Professional chaplains go across the boundaries of faith groups and they do not proselytize. They act on behalf of their organizations and also seek to protect patients from being confronted by other people and those who tend to post spiritual intrusion to them. They provide provisional nature of knowledge and supportive spiritual care giving through empathetic listening indicating the demonstration of understanding the need of patients in distress. They serve as members of patient care team by participating in medical rounds and patient care conferences and offering views on the spiritual status of patients. They are involved in the participation of interdisciplinary education and also chart spiritual care interventions in medical charts in the hospital settings. They design and lead religious ceremonies of worship and rituals such as the offering of prayer, meditation, reading of holy texts, worship and observance of holy days, conduct blessings and sacraments, conduct memorial services and funerals, perform rituals at the time of birth or other significance time of life cycle transition and holy observance. They lead or participate in healthcare ethics programs by providing and assisting patients and families in completing advance directives, classifying values systems with patients, family members, staff, and organizations. They educate the healthcare team and community regarding the relationship of religious and spiritual issues to institutional services in interpreting and analyzing multi-faith and multi-cultural traditions as they impact clinical services in clinical settings. They act as mediators and reconcilers and function as advocates or cultural brokers between institutions and patients’ family members and staff. They classify and interpret institutional policies to patients, community clergy, and religious organizations. They may serve as contact person to arrange assessment for the appropriateness and coordination of complementary therapies such as guided imagery or relaxation training, meditation, music therapy, and healing touching. Professional chaplains and their certifying organizations encourage and support research activities to assess the effectiveness of providing spiritual care to patients and families.

            With regard to ethical issues, professional chaplains decision making process must affect the setting in which they are rendering services to humanity. Is it possible that due to the demand of this world systems, chaplain might leave their descriptive and spiritual responsibilities and tend to do something that are not in correlation of the commitment made to God and inmates especially in the prison situation? The temptation awaits every chaplain to make decision regarding ethical matters. Tribe writes, “Out of these differing yet similar experience we began wondering how much impact the setting in which chaplains’ work had on the way they made decisions. We are not first ones to ask several questions whether chaplains “sell out” to prison systems versus our spoken commitment to God, love, and inmates.”[12]

            In the work place where chaplains visit people in the prison ministry, there is the temptation wanting to sell something out to the prisoners. This is unethical and must not be practiced by any chaplains. It destroys the image of the chaplains and the organization he or she represents. Know that as the professional chaplains to spiritual ministry, you represent God before the people. You are anticipated to serve as role model to society in generally bringing hope, reconciliation, and healing to family members and patients. Our representations of God to the people are paramount to an effective chaplaincy ministry and practice. You cannot give out what you do not have. You have professional and ethical responsibilities before co-workers, family members, and patients you serve as chaplains. Be a role model so that people can right assure that you are in the position to render assistance and services based on the problem they face in lives. Chaplains must be the comforter during the situation that seems hopeless. If human fails, the chaplains should stand and believe God for the uncommon happenings. Fairweather writes, “Three months later a nurse called for Pastoral support for a patient whose doctor had shared with her that she had in inoperable malignant brain tumor. When I entered the patient’s room, I was joltier by the screams of rejection. “No! no, anyone but you.”[13] In this kind of situation, a chaplain is dumb folded and must approach the patient to give hope in this time of distressful moment that the patient is experiencing. Can you imagine what the patient is thinking presently? He or she is thinking about death and leaving love ones behind.

            Professional chaplains have the ethical and professional responsibilities to represent God before the people and to offer services to patients and family members who are in distress. Professional chaplains attend to emergency and hopeless situation and offer counseling services to patients who have been diagnosed with terminal illness and inoperable diagnostic disease. He or she stands as the advocate and counselor to people in the time of needs. How precious and wonderful the works of the chaplains need to be carried out to serve humanity? They must form part of the healthcare team at all time.

            In conclusion, chaplains need skills as tools to work with as to maximize their productivities with respect to human’s resource rehabilitation, development, and restoration.



Chaplaincy is the job required for extensive education in both the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary knowledge approach in the care environment. The demand for these educational disciplines of training helps chaplains learn various skills to enable them to be effective in discharge of duties in a realistic work environment. Among these skills chaplains need comprise of reflective listening, strategic planning, assessing, charting, paraphrasing, counseling, summarizing, facilitating responses, and inspiring hope in the patients.

            Reflective listening is paramount to active chaplaincy in the work or patient care environment. This kind of listening allows the patient unfolds his or her theology of religion before the chaplain is allowed to speak to meet the patient’s need of care. Allowing the patient to speak, helps the chaplain to incorporate and to integrate the patient’s religious background and therefore enables the chaplain to minister to patient based on where he or she comes from religiously. Reflective listening paths the way the strategic planning should occur. Strategic planning forms part of the patient care in the work environment. The plan that forms part of the strategic plan is the integral part of the whole plan in the care environment. Chaplaincy ministry requires proper planning to make positive impart to patient care and institutional development. Planning as a team is significant to enhancing the whole plan of care on the organizational level. Assessing is the act of evaluating patient’s condition as to plan a therapeutic approach to minister to the patients based on their conditions. The assessments are done through the process of interrogation while listening, observing various posture of expression and taking into consideration notes left in patient medical charts as health care personnel and chaplains chart during their discharge of their duties. Another skills chaplain’s need especially in the hospital setting is the ability to chart in medical charts whenever they visit patients for therapeutic purpose. Chaplains are responsible to offer holistic care to patients; therefore, they minister to body, soul, and spirit. This indicates that they form part of a health care team though they are not considered medical personnel; however, they are spiritual healers to patients. They offer counseling and inspire hope to patients in hopeless and distressful situation. Any chaplain is assumed to be a counselor; therefore, skills also necessary for chaplaincy ministry are the ability to counsel patients. Chaplains daily interact with patients with various problems who come from various religious backgrounds; as such, chaplains are expected to be diverse in their counseling process. During the counseling, chaplains are expected to allow patients to bring their religion in the discussion instead of the chaplains imposing his or her religion on the patient. The idea of religious pluralism and diversity is encouraged during the period of counseling. Know that the goal of the chaplaincy ministry is to minister to patient’s need. Paraphrasing is the skill necessary to deal with patients. It is the act of saying the patient’s word in different fashion or rewording the patient’s statement that he or she can understand what he or she just says. It is a skill necessary during the counseling process. It allows the patient to restate what he or she has just said. Another area of skill is the act of summarizing. It is a way of dividing a longer discourse into manageable chapters or to terminate a conversation gracefully (Robert, pp. 97). It is useful in situation or difficult pastoral conversation that unfolds as a seamless sequence of sentences with no break for response. Another area of skill necessary is facilitating responses which are the next level of listening and responding. It helps patients communicate with verbal clarity and helps patient risk dealing with more difficult emotions. It includes open-ended questions, buffering, understatement, and tell-me-more (Robert, pp. 97).

            Lastly, one of the most important areas is inspiring hope in patients. After all skills have been explored, the next one is to inspire hope in the patient. What do you do as a chaplain to inspire hope in the terminally ill patient when the time of his or her death is pronounced and known by the patient? Do you use the faith hope to cover up reality? How can you use faith psychology to minister to the individual who knows he or she will die soon? Do you trust in divine healing to avert the pronouncement of the medical report? These questions are necessary to chaplaincy ministry when it comes to trusting in God in the unusual situation. In 2008, I was called to pray for a child who suffered from kidney failure. According to the medical report, a child’s organ was completely misaligned and there was no surety that the child was going to live. The mother and father were crying when I entered the hospital. Family members including pastors were in the room while the mother and father of the child cried out for help. When I entered the room, I smell death. The Holy Spirit spoke to me to take the child from the bed and to have her prayed for. I obeyed and did what the Spirit told me to do. When I left the hospital, a call came to me midnight that the child who has not gone to the rest room for six months, had urinated. It was a miracle that God performed. In 2007, a gentleman had aneurism and he was declared disable for the rest of his life. According to the nurse, he would live forever in rehabilitation center without recovery by virtue of his stroke. I told family members that it was true medically; however, God can superimpose on medical report. I prayed and left. After the prayer according to his wife, Abraham asked the nurse that he wanted to eat. The man who appeared dead with machine tied when I arrived at the hospital is asking for food. The doctors and nurses could not believe that Abraham could be normal today. Abraham had three surgeries in his brain, but he appears that he had never had surgery before. He is active and working. These are areas a chaplain should offer hope to patient by praying and allowing God to work. Our responsibilities are God’s abilities. We must pray and God does the work.

            To get prepare for chaplaincy ministry, one must be willing to deny self and to help people who are suffering. It is not easy to deny oneself; however, it takes the Holy Spirit to enable the chaplain to meet the goal. A chaplain should be willing to listen to patients as they talk taking into account pluralism of religions. A chaplain should not impose his or her religion or theology on the patients whom he is serving. Chaplains are called to minister to patients in regardless of nationality, creeds, race, social status etc. Chaplains are called to minister to humanity; therefore, diversity should be encouraged with relative to cultural and religious background. As chaplains minister to patients in the hospital setting, they are to listen to patients who face difficult situations in their lives. Newitt writes, “Patients in hospital can face some of the most profound human experiences, as much of their understanding of themselves, and their outlook of life, and challenged. Through listening and building relationship of trust, offering a spiritual perspective, and using liturgy and liturgically-based ritual with imagination and creativity, chaplains seek to help patients through times of difficult transition.”[14]

            As discussed previously, reflective listening is one of the skills chaplains need to minister to patients need. Chaplains are to listen keenly to patients as to investigate what is going on with the patients. Listening to patients helps the chaplains find out the prognosis and therefore institute counseling sessions with the patients. All chaplains are counselors in their discharge of duties for the fact that they are interacting and talking to patients who are in need of help.

            Barger states, “Chaplains see themselves primarily as counselors. At least 37 of the 67 statements include in this part of the analysis referred to some aspect of the role of chaplains as counselors.”[15]



Ethical dilemma exists in the health care settings on the daily basis at all times; therefore, chaplains are to work with people where they are presently taking into account the situation on hand. They are anticipated to bring spiritual and emotional healing to dying patients and family members. In the discharge of their duties, they learn to serve the comprised individuals without hesitation.

            Zucker writes, “Working as a professional chaplain is often defined as being present with the people where they are, whether that may be, yet from the perspective of both authenticity and ethics, is this goal that is truly beneficial either to the chaplain or to the compromised individual being served?[16]” Indeed, the goal is to serve the compromised individual who is suffering from such kind of trauma or illness; however, the chaplain gains experience and tend to discover experiential exploration to enable him or her deal with contingent and contemporary situation in the future. Does the chaplain turn to physicians to seek help when it comes to the end of life situation? Physicians in general want to see their patients well because it shows that they are well trained and equipped to perform as to commensurate to their assignments. Ropp writes, “It is naturally tempting to turn to physicians, but they are often not well equipped to even accept the reality of death. Death to them is a failure in medical skill, or technology, or even the human body.”[17] Chaplains, Christian care givers, or clergy encounter challenges as well as opportunities when ministering to patients who face illness or imminent death. Ropp states, “As Christian care givers, clergy, or chaplain, we encounter opportunities as well as challenges when ministering to persons facing illness or imminent death. Yet where can we turn for guidance or wisdom concerning decision at life’s end”?[18] The only place chaplain can turn to guidance and wisdom is to God.

            We live in a societal environment where ethical issues are inevitable and these issues turn out to be sometimes ethical dilemmas that we don’t have control or solution to them; as the result, chaplaincy ministry becomes very paramount to serve as non-confrontational body between staff and family members of the patient; therefore, the chaplains should endeavor to protect the patient’s interest during the situation. Regarding the end of life situation, the state of ethical dilemmas becomes a reality in such situation. In some cases where there is an existence of palliative care, it becomes ethically mandatory to execute plans for serious or terminally ill patients who are on their death road. In such situation, the decision to continue pain management or forgo medical treatment is eminent. Patients who are to die shortly as reported by the doctor based on their diagnosis regarding underlying diseases such as cancer, HIV etc. or those who are on life support, the situation of palliative care is important in such situation. Discussing hope in the context of treatment decision making, the language of hope can be prominent in decision making near the end of life. Because this language may be associated with religious beliefs and practices, the involvement of a chaplain may be helpful in facilitating communication during treatment decision making.[19]. In most instances where religious people tend to give a place of faith for their God to perform miracles in an existing situation, the language of hope is mentioned by family members of the patient; in such case, the collaborative decision making to decide the fate of the individual by staff members becomes hindered. In the case of someone who is on life support and he or she is suffering, the tendency for family members to accept or reject the removal of such life support so the individual can die is evidential-existentiality in scope and incidental. In the case of mercy killing, it becomes unethical to do such because every human has the right to live. What can one do when the human who has the right to live is suffering and he or she is being reported that he or she will die soon? What should family, staff, and chaplain do in such situation? Is it right to perform euthanasia? This is an ethical dilemma. However, there should be a resolution to come out with the solution. Something must be done regarding this situation on hand. A chaplain stands as the intervener between medical staff and family members who don’t want to remove the life support because they want to see their love ones all the time. Roberts writes, “Acknowledging the objections to the declaration of death, including objections to the neurological criteria for making a determination of death, does not alter the physiological state of the deceased patient.”[20]. No matter what family members say regarding objections, the individual is going to die or has died will not alter the reality that the individual will die or not. This is the reason; a chaplain should be involved when it comes to religious objections regarding treatment decision. If religious objection is an effort to halt a decision-making process, the chaplain may be able to elicit the underlying source of distress or serve as a non-confrontational presence.[21] Chaplaincy ministry is an advocative and healing ministry in the health care setting. In Conclusion, chaplaincy ministry is a dedicated called profession tasked with the responsibility to resolve issues regarding ethical dilemmas and ethics in the work environment such as the hospitals, prisons, and other places called for such profession. These ethical dilemmas and issues must be dealt with before the chaplaincy ministry can continue.



The ministry of chaplaincy has extended its sphere of control in prisons, jails, hospitals, and corporate environments where chaplains serve as counselors to prisoners or inmates, the sick, and employees. The presence of chaplains in these institutional ministries is helpful to the organizations and its targeted populations. Chaplaincy in these institutional ministries is vital to the wellbeing of the subjects who should be beneficiaries of the services rendered in jails, prisons, hospitals, and corporate organizations. Services rendered to people in these ministries varied based on the nature of the people and the services accorded for according to their special needs.

            Taylor and Francis write, “Since the inception of the penitentiary, prison chaplains have played an integral role in the lives of inmates. Research has been limited; however, that explores the involvement of chaplains in offender treatment.[22]

            The involvement of chaplains in prisons has helped shaped inmates in prison in positive direction. Through counseling and offender treatment, prisoners in prison tend to improve on behavior patterns. Some of them regret why they committed such crimes that place them in such category. The chaplains offer emotional, psychological, and spiritual healing through counseling and prayer. Prison chaplains help in the rehabilitation of criminals by offering counseling services on scheduled to meet specific goals in the lives of inmates in realistic jails and prison environments. Another area of chaplaincy ministry is jail where inmates or prisoners are present. Can jail be different from prison? In my opinion, jail and prison have similar definitive meaning; however, they vary connotatively based on how they are used in context and practice. In jail or prisons, various activities that are related to spiritual exercises or activities are carried out. Such include Bible studies and prayer. Graziano writes, “My duties also include providing inmates with Christian books, Bibles, Bible studies, and other literature to help them grow spiritually. I do a lot of counseling with the inmates. As a result of this, I often refer inmates to outside contacts who may be able to assist them with clothes, housing, and drug or alcohol treatment. Also, I often refer them to local churches where they can continue their spiritual growth.”[23] Chaplaincy in prisons or jails indicates evangelization of souls where the Bible or the word of God is taught and emphasized. This kind of jobs enables the chaplains to serve as advocates for needy people through referral of inmates to philanthropic organizations for assistance as need be. Another area of chaplaincy is the health care system where chaplains serves as members of the health care team; therefore, the chaplains are anticipated to enter information regarding medical for patients so health care personnel can know what is going on with patients emotionally and spiritually. In the health care settings, chaplains are to assist family members in the area of advance directives especially for terminally ill patients. The Presence of chaplains in the health care settings helped terminally ill patients to sometimes cope with life situation especially during palliative care for patients who are in hospice situation. Pain management and the end of life situation are also issues faced by family members of terminally ill patients. In such situation, chaplains work along with health care team to offer services to patients and family members. In the end of life situation, there are ethical dilemmas faced by the chaplains and the health care team that must be addressed adequately to meet the health needs of patients and family members. In most instances, the dilemmas become ethical ones that require both family members of the patients and the health care team including the chaplains to come out with the solution. In the health care industry, chaplaincy ministries are vital for the emotional, psychological, and spiritual status of people. This is the reason, hospital chaplaincy will not go out of business; however, the ministry of chaplaincy will deal with both finance and clinical model. Myers writes, “Hospital chaplaincy is not going out of business. But it will indeed change.” He expresses his belief that chaplaincy in the future will need to be broadening into two bases: clinical and financial. Like any change, corporate or individual, this will pose threats and opportunities.”[24] Another area of chaplaincy ministry is in the corporate environment where employees are served in various areas of their lives included and not limited to financial, family problems, stress, sickness, deaths, and many others. Chaplaincy ministry is not only restricted or limited to religious institutions, but it goes beyond this religious boundary. According to the corporate website of America, writes, “A Corporate Chaplains of America (CCA) chaplain is a highly trained professional who provides confidential care-giving in the workplace through relationships built with employees during brief care-giving sessions at company sites.”[25] Chaplaincy ministry is human ministry whereby chaplains are to build and to create relationship building with people in various levels while studying who they are. The job seekers in this area must demonstrate interpersonal relationship in order to get to the core of the people’s problems. It is professionally motivated and job seekers in this area that must indicate integrity and maintain confidentiality. Chaplaincy ministry in jail, prison, hospital, and corporate setting requires skill knowledge and building human relationship to be successful.


To offer effective pastoral care to care seekers, listening is the skill necessary for pastoral care giving to enable pastoral care givers or chaplains to paraphrase or rewords the statement made by patients, to ask questions, to interpret the emotional state of patients, and to carry out appropriate self-disclosure.

            The areas of sexual misconducts, ethnocentrism, favoritism, and social biases can negatively influence chaplaincy ministry and works; therefore, chaplains are advised to take heed against such negative influences.

            The end of life situation is an ethical dilemma situation that puts both the medical team and family members to a closed door; however, decision must be made regarding the situation to end the life or not.

            For chaplains to work in the multicultural environments, chaplains should exhibit cultural competence, assess social identity of the care seekers, assess relational and marital statuses, assess community relationship, and assess organizational affiliation of the care seekers.

            With respect to personality types, what become strengths can produce an adverse effect on the weaknesses one experiences in life. Someone’s weakness can become another person’s strength. Chaplains need skills as tools to work with in order to maximize their productivities with respect to human’s resource rehabilitations, developments, and restorations. Chaplains are counselors in discharge of their duties because they interact with patients who need help. They have professional and ethical responsibilities to resolve issues with respect to ethical dilemmas in hospitals and prisons ministries. They work with special populations in jails, prisons, hospitals, and corporate environment that require skill knowledge and human relationship building.


Barger, George W. “The Institution Chaplains: Constructing a Role Definition,” 38 no 3 (1984): 176–186.

Carter, Rob. “Military Chaplaincy is a Mission-Focus Ministry,” 19 no 1 (2011): 12–14.

Corporate Website of America, n.p. [Cited 25 June 2013]. Online:

Dropp, Ronald D. “Issues, Goals and concern of chaplain Leadership, “26 no 2 (2010): 82–380.

Fairweather, Carolynne. “APC:Transforming Professional Chaplaincy,” 27 no 2 (2011). No Pages

Graziano, Margaret. “The Role of Jail Chaplains,” n.p. [Cited 15 November 2013]. Online:> articles.

Homer, Jernigan L. “Immense and Transcendence in Pastoral Care: Some Basic Considerations,” 38 no 2 (1984): 120–132.

Howell, Brian M. “Multiculturalism, Immigration and the North American Church: Rethinking Contextualization,” 39 no 1 (2011): 79–85.

Insko, Robert W. “Emerging Shape of Religious Education.” 10 no 3 (1975): 1–9.

Knight, Henry F. “Scenes from a Ministry Reflection on College and University Chaplaincy,” 7 no 2 (1990): 76–86.

Myers, Russell. “The Future is Now: Revisiting Lawrence Holst’s 1985 Predictions for Hospital Chaplaincy,” 28 no 1 (2012): 26.

Newitt, Mark. “The Role and Skills of a Hospital Chaplains: Reflections Based on a Case Study,” 3 no 2 (2010): 163–177.

Roberts, Stephen B. Professional Spiritual & Pastoral Care: A Practical Clergy and Chaplain’s Handbook. Woodstock: Skylight Paths, 2013.

Snyder, Ross. “Religious Meaning and the Latter Third of Life,” 76 no 5 (1981): 534–552.

Southwood, Katherine. “Identity and Ethics in the Book of Ruth: A Social Identity Approach,” 36 no 5 (2012): 126.

Taylor & Francis. “The Role of Prison Chaplains in Rehabilitation,” Volume 35, Issues 3–4 (2002): 134–216

Tribe, Roy M.G. “Vinegar and Oil: Are the Moral/Ethical Decision Process by Professional Prison Chaplains Superior to Hospital Chaplains.” Journal of Pastoral Care 54 no 3 (2000): 313–320.

Waddell, Robby. “Letters from Jail: The Apostle Paul and the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. An Open Letter to the Church of the Brethren,” 57 no 1 (2012): 43–52.

Westell, Colin A. “Learning to Care: A Report on Pastoral Care Courses for Australian Congregations,” 39 no 4 (1985): 349–355.

Wunerink, Susan. “You’ve Got Jail: Missionaries Imprisonment Shows the Securing Risks of Support E-mails,” 87 no 1 (2012): 23–45.

Zucker, David J. “The Chaplain as an Authentic and an Ethical Presence,” 23 no 2 (2007): 15–24.

[1] Jernigan L. Homer, “Immense and Transcendence in Pastoral Care: Some Basic Considerations,” 38 no 2 (1984): 120–132.

[2] Colin A. Westell, “Learning to Care: A Report on Pastoral Care Courses for Australian Congregations,” 39 no 4 (1985): 349–355.

[3] Robby Waddell, “Letters from Jail: The Apostle Paul and the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. An Open Letter to the Church of the Brethren,” 57 no 1 (2012): 43–52.

[4] Susan Wunerink, “You’ve Got Jail: Missionaries Imprisonment Shows the Securing Risks of Support E-mails,” 87 no 1 (2012): 23–45.

[5] Henry F. Knight, “Scenes from a Ministry Reflection on College and University Chaplaincy,” 7 no 2 (1990): 76–86.

[6] Rob Carter, “Military Chaplaincy is a Mission-Focus Ministry,” 19 no 1 (2011): 12–14.

[7] Katherine Southwood, “Identity and Ethics in the Book of Ruth: A Social Identity Approach,” 36 no 5 (2012): 126.

[8] Brian M. Howell, “Multiculturalism, Immigration and the North American Church: Rethinking Contextualization,” 39 no 1 (2011): 79–85.

[9] Robert W. Insko, “Emerging Shape of Religious Education,” 10 no 3 (1975): 1–9.

[10] Ross Snyder, “Religious Meaning and the Latter Third of Life,” 76 no 5 (1981): 534–552.


[12] Roy M.G Tribe, “Vinegar and Oil: Are the Moral/Ethical Decision Process by Professional Prison Chaplains Superior to Hospital Chaplains,” JPC, 54 no 3 (2000): 313–320.

[13] Carolynne Fairweather, “APC: Transforming Professional Chaplaincy,” 27 no 2 (2011). n.p.

[14] Mark Newitt, “The Role and Skills of a Hospital Chaplains: Reflections Based on a Case Study,” 3 no 2 (2010): 163–177.

[15] George W Barger, “The Institution Chaplains: Constructing a Role Definition,” 38 no 3 (1984): 176–186.

[16] David J Zucker, “The Chaplain as an Authentic and an Ethical Presence,” 23 no 2 (2007): 15–24.

[17] Ronald D Ropp, “Issues, Goals and concern of chaplain Leadership, “26 no 2 (2010): 82–380.

[18] Ibid., 82–83.

[19] Ibid., 189

[20] Stephen B. Roberts, Professional Spiritual & Pastoral Care: A Practical Clergy and Chaplain’s Handbook. (Woodstock: Skylight Paths), 2013, 189.

[21] Ibid., 189.

[22] Taylor & Francis, “The Role of Prison Chaplains in Rehabilitation,” Volume 35, Issues 3–4 (2002): 134–216.

[23] Margaret Graziano, “The Role of Jail Chaplains,” n.p. [Cited 15 November 2013]. Online:> articles.

[24] Russell Myers, “The Future is Now: Revisiting Lawrence Holst’s 1985 Predictions for Hospital Chaplaincy,” 28 no 1(2012): 26.

[25] Corporate Website of America, n.p. [Cited 25 June 2013]. Online: