This section of the thesis introduces four categories of gifts mentioned in scriptures according to this research, while defining and explaining, charisma, the category of gifts with the supporting documentations. It introduces and explains the six channels by which God transfers His anointing. It concludes with the three virtues necessary for the sustenance of the anointing in the life of the minister of God for efficient and productive ministry operations.
The Efficacy Of The Anointing
The Categories Of Gifts
The function of the anointing through the instrumentality of the Holy Spirit in believers is the end result of the generation ofspiritual gifts for effective Christian service(1 Cor 12:1–11; Eph 4:8–13; Gen 22:2; John 15:12–14; Rom 12: 1–2). In this junction, it is expedient that a gift be defined in the context of biblical theology while placing emphasis on spiritual gifts (charismata). A gift is something given voluntarily without the effort of the receiver especially in the case of the subordinate individual who receives the gift from the absolute authority (God). The receiver of the gift does not merit anything in connection with the gift. The gifts given by the Holy Spirit to the church are typically named under charisma, the source of grace. Dorea and doma are gift categories of God to the Christian ministries for salvation and for the edification of the church respectively; unlike, doron, it is a gift from man to God for ceremonial sacrifice. Each is explained on the subsequent pages as the following:
Charisma is a gift of grace or undeserved favor given to believers by the Holy Spirit for Christian service (Rom 1:11; 5:15; 5:16; 6:23; 11:29; 12:6; 1 Cor 1:7; 7:7; 12:4; 12:9; 12:28; 12:30; 12:31; 2 Cor 1:11; 1 Tim 4:14; 2 Tim 1:6; 1 Pet 4:10).Charisma springs from grace. Properly, it is the operation of grace. For example, the grace-endowment to edify the Church and focusing on the end-result of the endowment of grace. Paul reminds Timothy again not to neglect this gracious gift (μὴἀμέλειτοῦἐνσοὶ χαρίσματος) (1 Tim 4:14). All gifts associated with the Holy Spirit for Christian service originate or spring from charisma, the source of Christian’s empowerment for effective ministry’s operation in Ecclesia. Such gifts include the gift of healing, miracles, faith, word of wisdom, word of knowledge, the gift of interpretation of tongues, diverse kinds of tongues, prophecy, discerning of spirits, the gift of administration, the gift of teaching, the gift of serving others, the gift of hospitality, the gift of public service in ministry, and so the list continues. In this light, since charisma is the source of these gifts, it is a gift category.
Doma is a gift category of God given to men that is associated with ministry for Christian service and the longing men have to seek something that is of the spiritual significance from God in either prayers or supplications (Eph 4:8–13; Matt 7:11;Phil 4:17; Luke 11:13). Some of the gifts that are within the gift category of doma include apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers (Eph 4:11). When Jesus ascended into heaven, he gave to men domata (gifts) for the edification of the body of Christ so that believers reach in the unity of the faith and be grounded and rooted biblically (Eph 4:11–13). There are four occurrences of doma in the New Testament.
Doron is a gift category given by men to God for sacrifice. The original word for doron is δῶρον, ου, τό. It is a neuter noun in Greek that signifies a gift or a present. It comes from the Greek verb didomi, meaning to give a gift especially to God in a ceremonial sacrifice. The nature of this giving is directly directed to God from men. The thing given to God in this offering or sacrifice becomes the abiding recipient’s possession.Doron occurs 19 times in the following scriptural references (Matt 2:11; 5:23, 24; 8:4; 15:5; 23:18, 19; Mark 7:11; Luke 21:1, 4; Heb 5:1; 8:3, 4; 9:9; 11:4; Rev 11:10).
Dorea is a gift category of God called righteousness that is associated with salvation. It is the gift sinners received when they accept the gospel message through repentance. Peter preached on the day of Pentecost and asked the audience to repent in order to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38). The Gentiles received the gift of the Holy Spirit when they heard the gospel message and this was followed by water baptism (Acts 10:45). The gift they received is called the gift of righteousness (dorea). Dorea is called the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38; 10:45), the gift of God (John 4:10; Acts 8:20), the gift of Christ (Eph 4:7), the gift of righteousness (Rom 5:17), and the heavenly gift (Heb 6:4). Dorea is the gift of righteousness that has its origin in the Trinitarian God (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit). He is the source of salvation for mankind (Rom 5:12–20). After having introduced the four categories of gifts based on this research, charismata are discussed on the subsequent pages of this document. Charisma is the gift of grace given to believers by the Holy Spirit before or at the time of hand laying during ordination for confirmation (Rom 1:11; 2 Tim 1:6; 1 Tim 4:14). The individual imparted this gift is admonished to grow in them to enable him or her fulfill the ministry and the calling. Budiselić comments on this special endowment from the Holy Spirit in the following paragraph, “In discussing the topic of the spiritual gifts, my claim is the translation of the Greek word charisma as a spiritual gift is unbiblical and wrong in general, since the word charisma does not signify the gifts of the Spirit, per se, nor spiritual gifts, but it signifies the gifts of God’s grace in general. The word charisma appears in the New Testament 17 times of which 16 is used by Paul and only once by Peter. The word is derived from the Greek word ‘charis’ which means grace and ma which means activity (Ulonska, 1996, 141). The ideas behind this word are the gift of grace (Williams, 1996, 2:323). It signifies activity which springs from the source of grace (Ulonska, 1996, 141). Fee said that it is a concrete expression or gracious bestowment of grace (Fee, 1994, 33). Conzelmann concludes that it is the result of charis (Conzelmann, 1974, 9:403).“
Budiselic ‘s comment concerning charisma as per the definition in the Greek context is logical. Chrisma is actually the source of spiritual empowerment given to believers by the Holy Spirit that gives rise to spiritual gifts. It is a gift category. In my opinion, the translators of the English version of the Bible mentioned charisma as the gift in these instances because it is the source of spiritual gifts or the gift of grace (1 Corinthians 12 and 14). Charisma is mentioned in 16 places in the New Testament by Paul and once by Peter. In the English translation of the English Bible, charisma is mentioned in these scriptures as the gift of the Spirit. Since it is the free gift of grace or undeserved favor that comes from the Spirit of grace, it is the source of all spiritual gifts.Gifts such as kubernesis, the gift of administration (Rom 12:7), didskalos, the gift of teaching (Rom 12:7), kerusso, the gift of preaching (1 Cor 12:28), metadidomi, the gift of giving or sharing (Rom 12:8), leitourgia, the gift of public service in ministry (Phil 2:17, 30; Luke 1:23; 2 Cor 9:12; Heb 8:6; 9:12), parakaleo, the gift of exhortation (Rom 12:1–2)diakonia, the gift of serving others (Rom 12:7; Acts 6:1–7) and gennaiodoria, the gift of generosity (1 Tim 6:18) are within the category of the gift of God’s grace or undeserved gift (charisma).
There are nine spiritual gifts called the charismata (plural for charisma) that are the manifestations of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit gives these gifts to believers accordingly as He wills (1 Cor 12:11). During the days of Paul, the Christians at Corinth were graciously gifted with these manifestations of the Holy Spirit. The Church in the 21st century is also a candidate to obtain and to operate in these manifestations. The Greek word, phanerósis (φανέρωσις, εως, ἡ) signifies manifestation or disclosure of the Holy Spirit’s activities in the lives of believers.Phanerósisis a feminine noun and it is mentioned in two places in the following scriptures (1 Cor 12:7; 2 Cor 4:2).
While the categories of gifts have been introduced, charismata or gifts of the Spirit are discussed on the subsequent pages of the thesis. Each is discussed highlighting ecclesiastically its significance to the deliverance and healing ministries of the church based on spiritual empowerment (the anointing) as encapsulated into the embodiment of the thesis document and the gifts are therefore mentioned in the following passage: Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good. To one there is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, to another the message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gift of healing by that one Spirit, to another miraculous powers, to another prophecy, to another distinguishing between spirits, to another speaking in different kinds of tongues, and to still another the interpretation of tongues. All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he gives them to each one, just as he determines(1 Cor 12:1–11 NIV).
Diverse Kinds Of Tongues
Glossolalia or speaking in tongues, according to linguists, it is the fluid vocalized of speech-like syllables that lack any readily comprehended meaning, in some cases as part of religious practice in that it is believed to be a divine language unknown to the speaker. It is a form of glossolalia in which a person experiencing religious ecstasy utters incomprehensible sounds that the speaker believes are a language spoken through him or her by a deity. Based on the nature of the gift of tongues and how it operates, Paul encouraged the Christians at Corinth to be cognizant of the gift that was operating in them since most of them were idol worshipers before coming to God. He said, “No one can say Jesus is Lord except by the Holy Spirit” (1 Cor 12:1–3). He encouraged them to excel in gift that edifies such as prophecy rather than tongues since tongues are signs to unbelievers while prophecy is a sign to believers (1 Cor 14:22). The gift of tongues is a spiritual gift imparted by the Holy Spirit, and it can be interpreted in intelligible word by the same Spirit using human vessel to make that unknown intelligible to human audibility and comprehension. The gift of tongues is often accompanied by prophecy (Acts 19:6). Paul encouraged the believers in Corinth to prophesy rather than speaking in tongues categorizing tongues probably as the least gift; notwithstanding, Pentecostal or Charismatic seems to embrace the gift of tongues. Fee adds to the critiques, “One of the common charges brought against Pentecostals/charismatic is that in their high level of interest in glossolalia they are seeking something that the Bible describes as the least of the gifts. Such an accusation is based on an interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12–14 that sees Paul as actually saying this in chapter 12 and that sees him as “condemning tongues with faint praise” in chapter 14.“
Interpretation Of Tongues
The gift of interpretation of tongues is the supernatural ability given by the Holy Spirit to believers to interpret what has been spoken in tongues. Unless tongues are interpreted, the audience remains unformed about what God is speaking about; therefore, Paul admonished the Christians at Corinth to interpret tongues spoken during worship; or else, the individual should remain silent (1 Cor 14:27–28). This is what Johnson has to say concerning interpretation of tongues, “An utterance in tongues given during corporate worship is a mystery spoken to God that needs interpretation. Accurate interpretation glorifies God and brings a deeper dimension to our corporate worship.” Tongues are mysteries spoken to God; unless, they are interpreted, the mind of the person who speaks in tongues is unfruitful; however, he edifies himself unless he interprets it before bringing edification to the church. He, who prophesies, edifies the church. The person who prophesies is greater than the one who speaks in tongues (1 Cor 14:2–5).Poloma said that non-reformed churches have responded to the idea that the gifts of the Holy Spirit including tongues have ceased or no longer in operation. It is not possible that all denominations in Christendom will respond to the gifts of the Holy Spirit that have been given to the church to function effectively as the result of beliefs systems, doctrinal orientations, and ideologies. Despite of these characteristics that doctrinally and ideologically divide the church based on the views each of these camps holds, God remains God in response to protecting His attributes. These minor beliefs or differences Christians hold, do not ostracize them as heretics because they are not major theological triages, such as the denial of the divinity and the humanity of Christ, the denial of the Trinity, or the doctrine that denies the existence of hell as the place of everlasting suffering.
Prophecy is the supernatural capability given to believers by the Holy Spirit to enable them hear and read the mind of God and to voice what God has spoken to them concerning the contemporary audience or a particular situation. A prophet is the mouth piece of God. In Peter, it reads, “Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of scriptures came about by the prophet’s own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Pet 1:20–21 NIV). Davison states, “In the usual sense, prophecy involves disclosing some important information that could not have been known to the prophet in any ordinary way.” With reference to its definition, prophecy is foretelling or prediction of what is to come or something that is declared by a prophet, especially a divinely inspired prediction, instruction, or exhortation. Prophecy comes to encourage, to correct, to rebuke, and to redirect. Prophecy’s goal is to edify the church; therefore, Paul said that he who prophesies is greater than the one who speaks in tongues unless he interprets so that the church may be edified (1 Cor 14:5). Prophecy comes as message of knowledge and message of wisdom. These spiritual gifts can operate concurrently as the need arises and as the Holy Spirit wills. The message of knowledge, the message of wisdom, deliverance, healing, faith, miracles, discerning of spirits, and prophecy can operate in the life of the person who is called to the prophetic ministry and graced with the appropriate anointing to discern spirits and to prophesy. Farnell states that no true prophet of God prophesies falsely and inaccurately in delivering the message from God.
Healing is the supernatural ability given to believers by the Holy Spirit to heal all manners of ailments or diseases of the body including both physical and spiritual maladies. God anointed Jesus Christ with the Holy Spirit to heal all manners of ailments (Acts 10:38); therefore, He has anointed the church to heal all manners of diseases or ailments of the body (Luke 9:1–10; Matt 10:1; James 5:14–15). Believers who are called by God into the healing ministry are possible candidate to heal all manners of illnesses that afflict human beings provided they walk in the proportion of their faith (Matt 17:20). Greater works believers will do because the Mediator is seated with his Father in heaven (John 14:12). Believers have Jesus as the High Priest (Heb 4:16). Believers are priests unto God (1 Pet 2:5; Heb 7:23–28). A prophet of God can operate in both deliverance and healing gifts of the Holy Spirit. A believer called and supernaturally empowered by the Holy Spirit to heal does not need the faith of the victim for healing to occur because the healer or the prophet operates in faith healing. The subsequent episode refers to a believer who does not possess the gift of healing. Mayhue narrates an incidence concerning the death of Wesley after having been pronounced healed by the preacher during the service. This incidence concerning the healing episode, could question the integrity or the anointing of the preacher, how the couple responded to God’s healing declaration from the pulpit, and why God did not heal as pronounced by the preacher. In my opinion, the couple made a mistake by not giving their son the insulin injection despite of receiving a negative result from the insulin test that was contrary to what the preacher pronounced from the pulpit concerning the healing of their son. Their reaction to the healing was associated with ignorance. Giving their child the insulin injection does not divorce the fact that they believe in God. Since they believed what God has spoken through the man of God, they should have continued to believe and confess healing on their child while at the same time giving the insulin. God allows medical healing to take place through His intervention while at the same time; He heals supernaturally without medical intervention. Does this incidence divorce the healing ministry of the church? No, it does not divorce it; nevertheless, God’s sovereignty cannot be questioned because He is God in time like these.
Miracles are supernatural extraordinary events manifesting diving intervention in human affairs such as the healing miracles described in the Gospels. This ability is given to the believers through the anointing of the Holy Spirit to intervene into the extraordinary sphere of the human situation. God used the Apostle Paul to work extraordinary miracles (Acts 19:11). He is using people in our generation to do the same. For examples, Benson Idahosa raised 28 dead bodies during his ministry in Nigeria, Pastor Chris Oyakhilome of Nigeria, operates in deliverance and healing ministries with signs and wonders following, and T. B. Joshua, the prophet of Nigeria, operates in prophetic, deliverance, and healing ministries with unusual miracles following his ministry in Singapore, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Mexico. The ideology of Mr. Burns concerning the cessation of the apostolic gifts and offices taking dispensation into consideration is the direct assertion that the operation of miracles has ended as the result of closure of revelation. There is no new revelation with respect to biblical cannon; however, revelation still comes through prophetic utterances to confirm what has been written in scriptures. This is the reason why prophecy should be judged according to scriptures. No true prophet of God can speak inaccurately because prophecy does not originate in the will of man but it comes through the instrumentality of God at work in the individual (2 Pet 1:19–21). Has revelation ceased? I do not believe that revelation has ceased; ideologically, Mr. Burns has said that revelation and miracle have passed away because there are no credible ministers in our generation. He has divorced revelation and credible ministers of our generation; therefore, he believes the gifts passed away when the apostles died.
The gift of faith is the special supernatural capability given to believers by the Holy Spirit to perform extraordinary miracles during confrontations with the demonic world. This gift of faith is not a saving or generalized faith that brings the sinner to the saving knowledge of Christ (Rom 10:9–10), but it is a special faith activated by the Holy Spirit to confront the devil, sicknesses or diseases (Acts 3:1–10). The gift of faith operates during faith healing. Prophets or believers who operate in the healing ministry can operate in the gift of faith (Acts 3:1–4:22). This gift of faith operates with divine eye and conviction and it is termed as spiritual gift of faith (1 Cor 12:9). Gerrish explains his view concerning ordinary or generalized faith to that of the faith whose eyes are enlightened and corrected during its operations, “That a person can have confidence in God is not a piece of information provided by an authoritative scripture: the confidence is given in the recognition of God’s “fatherly face.” To be sure, this happens through the word, as Calvin rightly says, but the word understood not as truth supernaturally communicated, but as the instrument of divinely corrected vision.”. The gift of faith has spiritual eyes to see the result before declaring over the prevailing situation. When Peter declared to the beggar in the name of Jesus to arise and to walk, he knew in his spirit by faith, the beggar would walk without shadow of doubt (conviction) (Acts 3:1–10). Faith is of the heart (the spiritual man); for this reason, Paul prayed for the Ephesians Christians so that God would enlighten the eyes of their heart to know and to understand His attributes (Eph 1:17–18). As Gerrish explains in his statement, the word must be believed taking God’s attributes into consideration; as the result, the word becomes a catalytic instrument to sharpen the vision of the faith healer producing the positive end result. What faith sees and pronounces, gives birth to miracles. Perception brings concession and when concession is matured through faith operations, it gives birth to miracles. The mouth speaks from the abundance of the heart (Prov 4:23; Luke 6:45) and life and death are in the power of the tongues (Prov 18:21). A faith healer is characterized by the above descriptions or phenomena.
Word Of Knowledge
The word of knowledge is the special ability or spiritual insight given to believers by the Holy Spirit concerning the now situation about an individual, an organization, or a situation at hand. The gift is revelatory between the receiver and God; however, it can be revealed or made known to the intended recipient of the message prophetically. The source of the gift is revelatory, but the mode of its transmission is prophetic to the intended audience. Edmiston substantiates the definition of this gift in the following sentences, “The gift of word of knowledge” is the gift of receiving spiritual insight (‘gnosis’) about a specific item from God. It is like a download from heaven that is helpful to the person or organization concerned.Stanley adds to the definition in the following comments, “The word of knowledge is a speaking gift that involves understanding truth with an insight that only comes by revelation from God. Those with the gift of knowledge understand the deep things of God and the mysteries of His Word.
Word Of Wisdom
The word of wisdom is the supernatural ability given to believers by the Holy Spirit to understand God’s view concerning doctrinal issues and practical living in the controversial world faced with conflicts. The gift judges things according to God’s preference, providence, and sovereignty and its goal is to bring praise and glory to the name of God. The person who operates in this gift, judges things according to the will of God and himself is not subject to any man’s judgment (1 Cor 2:9–6). In the book of 1 Kgs 17:7–16, the Spirit of the Word of Wisdom operates in the life of Elijah as he meets the widow at Zarephath. The prophet, Elijah prophesied in Israel that it was not going to rain for three and half year; so, it came to pass that it did not rain according to the Word of the Lord. In the midst of the famine, Elijah was instructed to go to a brook where he was fed by the raven. As the famine continued, he was instructed to leave the brook and to go to Zarephath to a widow. During his interaction with the widow, the Spirit of the Word of Wisdom operated in his life to instruct the widow according to the Word of the Lord to prepare him a cake and subsequently prophesied that her vessels would not run out of flour nor oil until the Lord has sent rain on the land provided the widow obeys the voice of the Lord. The Message of the Word of Wisdom intervened in her situation to save her and her child from dying from starvation. Stanley augments and states that the gift “ of the word of wisdom” is the spiritual gift of being able to see God’s wise perspective on an issue of doctrine, practice or even daily life.
Discerning Of Spirits
The discerning of spirits is the supernatural ability given to believers by the Holy Spirit to distinguish between or among spirits in order to give godly direction or to deal with the situation according to the will of God. This gift discerns the presence of contrary or demonic spirits. Apostle Paul had an encounter with the slave girl in the book of Acts who brought profits to her master through the spirit of divination (clairvoyance). It reads, “The same followed Paul and us, and cried, saying, these men are the servants of the most high God, that shew unto us the way of salvation” (Acts 16:17 KJV). She was behind Paul and Silas for days. Paul discerned the spirit and eventually drove out the evil spirit. The spirit of clairvoyance left her and she was set free at that moment. The gift of discerning of spirits operated in the life of Paul to discern the contrary spirit that was speaking through the slave girl. Based on the nature of her declaration that Paul and Silas were men of God; therefore, it could not have been possible to discern the presence of evil spirit except the gift of the discerning of spirits was in operation in the life of Paul. In his explanation concerning the gift of discerning of spirits, Knight adds that the discernment of spirits” is the term given to the judgment whereby it is possible to determine from what spirit the impulses of the soul emanate, and it is easy to understand the importance of this judgment both for self-direction and the direction of others. Knight gives very good information concerning this gift of the discerning of spirits; however, this gift was not only granted to the church in the days of the apostles, but the gift has also been granted to the church in this generation because the Holy Spirit who is the distributor of the gift indwells believers (1 Cor 12:11; 6:16–20) and God remains unchangeable in time and space (Heb 13:8). In the book of John 14:18, Jesus said, “I will not leave you as an orphan; I will come to you.’ The word orphan in Greek is orphanos that signifies, I will not leave you as fatherless, bereaved, or desolate. The Holy Spirit, who gave the gifts to the apostles, indwells believers today. The Holy Spirit distributes the spiritual gifts to believers as they are gathered in public worship (1 Cor 12:11). The Greek verb, diaireó, signifies to divide into parts, to distribute, or to cut asunder. The verb used in 1 Cor 12:11 is διαιροῦν, that signifies, “He therefore distributing the gift to each as He wills” (αὐτὸ πνεῦμα διαιροῦν ἰδίᾳἑκάστῳ). The verb used in the passage is in the present continued tense which indicates an ongoing action that happens when believers are assembled in worship (1 Cor 12:11).
Devolution Of The Anointing
In this section of the thesis, the manners by which God transfers His anointing are discussed. The word transfer does not signify that God can be manipulated or controlled by anyone or natural phenomena. The words used in the subsequent headings are not biblical words; therefore, they are analogies metaphorically used to explain to the natural mind (1 Cor 2:14–16) how God in time past had ministered deliverance and healing to meet human needs. These manners (anointing transferred) are mysteries that are unfathomable and incomprehensible to the human’s intellect; therefore, the words used are for simplicity taking human inadequacy with regards to understanding spiritual things (John 3:1–10). The move of God cannot be equated to natural phenomena such as radiation, conduction, or convection.
Scientifically, radiation is defined as the process of emitting radiant energy in the form of waves or particles or the process involving the emission, transmission, and absorption of radiant energy. One particular entity called wave is transferred during this phenomenon. This wave involved transporting of energy without the transport of the matter. The wave travels through a medium called air or space. It is a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location (source) to another location without the transport of the object being affected. In the contextualization of the anointing transferred, radiation is the transfer of the anointing through space by means of shadow. The shadow is metaphorically being defined as wave particles passing through human being to effect deliverance and healing. During the days of the apostles, the sick were brought and laid in the street and the shadow of Peter healed them all as he passed by. The anointing from Peter’s shadow traveled over space and healed the sick that were lying in the street. In Acts, it reads, “Insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that at the least the shadow of Peter passing by might overshadow some of them. There came also a multitude out of the cities round about unto Jerusalem, bringing sick folks, and them which were vexed with unclean spirits: and they were healed everyone” (Acts 5:15–16 KJV). The word shadow appears in seven places in scriptures.The word shadow in Greek isskia (σκιά, ᾶς, ἡ). It is a feminine noun that signifies a shadow, shade, thick darkness, or an outline. It is the shadow of a looming presence; (figuratively) a spiritual reality (good or bad) relating to God’s light or spiritual darkness. It is mentioned as the shadow of death (Matt 4:16); under the shadow of it (Mark 4:32); in darkness and the shadow of death (Luke 1:79); his shadow might fall on some (Acts 5:15); things which are the shadow to come (Col 2:17); a copy of the shadow of heavenly things (Heb 8:5) and having a shadow of good things (Heb 10:1). Shadow (skia) used in the above scriptural passages refers to different situations (good or bad). In the Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, a shadow is a shade caused by the interception of the light (Mark 4:32; Acts 5:15; Ezek 17:23) or an image cast by an object and representing the form of that object. Shadow in scriptures is associated with good and evil. Shadow is directly connected to God’s light or the anointing as radiation is associated with light from the sun energy. Anointing transmitted over space by means of Peter’s shadow brought deliverance and healing to the sick. This is a mystery beyond human comprehension; as the result, it cannot be tested or proven through empiricism or metaphysics. Thomson wrote this poem to narrate Peter’s healing shadow, “Faces sullen with being sick too long, None quite believes a miracle will fall.In the passing of St. Peter’s shadow. I never liked St. Peter much before, Complaining he couldn’t leave his fishing, Lying three times before the rooster cried, Not at all the right choice for succession, Not the sort that one could build a church on. When Peter walked on water, he fell in. Yet here comes St. Peter in procession: Barefooted, gentle-bearded, workmanlike, A follower of God. His shadow falls.”
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, conduction is the transmission of an entity through or by means of a conductor or a transfer of heat through matter by communication of kinetic energy from particle to particle with no net displacement of the particles. It is the transmission of excitation through living tissue and especially nervous tissue. In electrical excitation of electrons, copper wires are used as conductors to carry high voltage electrical powers to industrial and residential environments in order to supply the environs with the necessary electrical powers capable of running various appliances in the industries and homes of developed nations. The goal of the supply of electrical powers is for comfort. In the context of the anointing, conduction is the transfer of God’s anointing through a solid object such as hand kerchiefs, mantles, or aprons. In Acts, it reads, “And God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul so that from his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them” (Acts 19:11–12 KJV). In the book of Kings, it reads, “He took up also the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and went back, and stood by the bank of Jordan; and he took the mantle of Elijah that fell from him, and smote the waters, and said, where is the Lord God of Elijah? And when he also had smitten the waters, they parted hither and thither: and Elisha went over. And when the sons of the prophets who were to view at Jericho saw him, they said, The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. And they came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him” (2 Kgs 2:13–15 KJV).
In the above quotations, handkerchiefs and aprons from Paul’s body were used to cast out evil spirits and to heal all manners of diseases and the mantle of Elijah that carried the anointing was used to part the Jordan River after Elijah was translated and his mantle fallen that became a possession of Elisha.Clarke explains the necessity commenting on the ecclesiastical generation concerning the transfer of spiritual authority and power to the next generation using Elijah and Elisha’s episode.
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, convection is defined as the movement in a gas or liquid in which the warmer parts of the liquid or gas move up and the cooler parts move down. The transfer of heat by convection cooked foods ready for eating. What actually happens in convection is the movement of fluids or gaseous substances as the result of a force exerting on them. Recognizing God as the deliverer or healer and not these material substances can activate human faith that God can use any thing in nature to satisfy what He wants in meeting human needs; however, He is completely separated from nature or the things He has created. God has recommended herbs and water as healing agents symbolically (Ezek 47:12). It is not the water, herbs or oil that heals, but it is faith that one has in God that brings about the end result of deliverance or healing.
According to the gospel, seasonally, the angel of the Lord descended from heaven and troubled the waters and whoever was the first to enter the water was healed from any diseases or sicknesses (John 5:1–5). The passage in John contains textual variants that are explained in appendix 1 of the thesis.
After the visitation of the angel, the water became symbolic representation of God’s presence that anyone who entered into it first was eventually healed from his or her infirmities. The book of Ezekiel 47 talks about the flowing river that measures the level of the anointing upon the ministers of God symbolically and metaphorically. Water is metaphorically used in the Bible to be a symbolic carrier of God’s anointing as indicated; however, its use and symbolic representation of the Holy Spirit is also an analogy to explain a spiritual reality. Those who believe in Jesus, out of their bellies will flow River of Living Water (John 7:38). Jesus was speaking about the Holy Spirit, who anoints and empowers believers to do effective ministry. The Bible declares that Naamanwas a commander of the Syrian army. He was held in favor because of victory that God brought him. Yet, Naaman was a leper. Naaman’s wife had a servant girl from Israel who said that a prophet name Elijah would be able to heal him; therefore, Naaman set out to meet the prophet in order to be healed. Upon his arrival, the prophet told him to go to the Jordan River and dip himself seven times. In the book of Kings, it reads, “And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, my father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? How much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean? Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean. And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him: and he said, Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel: now therefore, I pray thee, take a blessing of thy servant “(2 Kgs 5:13–15 KJV).
Naaman got healed as he obeyed the voice of the prophet. Jesus told the blind man to wash his eyes in the pool of Saloam in order to receive his sight. In John, it reads, “Go,” he told him, “wash in the Pool of Siloam” (this word means “Sent”). So the man went and washed, and came home seeing” (John 9:7 NIV).
Not only water has been used in the deliverance and healing ministries, but oil is the one recommended in scriptures to consecrate persons for spiritual empowerment, to consecrate religious vessel, and to minister healing and deliverance to the dying world. The elder, James, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, commanded oil to be used in healing the sick (James 5:14–15). Jesus sent his disciples commanding them to use oil in order to heal the sick (Luke 9:2). In Mark, it reads, “They drove out many demons and anointed many sick people with oil and healed them” (Mark 6:13 NIV).
The Spoken Word (Rhema)
During evangelistic, prophetic, or revival gathering, people get delivered, healed, and blessed as the result of the spoken word from the pulpit. This is the common and conventional medium by which God transfers His anointing. Via the promulgation of the gospel message, the congregations and the preacher are to review the past and put God in remembrance of His word (Isa 43:26); then, God will eventually perfect or bring to past what has been spoken through faith. God’s word is quick and sharper than any two-edged sword (Heb 4:12). In the book of Psalm, it reads, “He sent forth his word and healed them; he rescued them from the grave” (Ps 107:20 NIV).
Another conventional mean by which God transfers His anointing to believers is during ordination ceremony through the laying of hands by the presbyters or during normal church services (2 Tim 1:6; 1 Tim 4:14; Acts 19:6). When Moses was about to die and to give the leadership to Joshua, God transferred his anointing to Joshua when Moses laid his hands on him (Num 27:23). In the book of Deuteronomy, it reads, “Now Joshua the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands on him; and the sons of Israel listened to him and did as the Lord had commanded Moses”(Deut 34:9 NIV). The Lord took the spirit of Moses and placed Him upon the seventy elders to help Moses carry out the daily duties of the Israelite community. In the book of Numbers, it reads, “Then the Lord came down in the cloud and spoke to him; and He took of the Spirit who was upon him and placed Him upon the seventy elders. And when the Spirit rested upon them, they prophesied. But they did not do it again” (Num 11:25 NIV). The apostles prayed and God transferred His anointing on the seven deacons chosen to serve tables by laying their hands on them (Acts 6:6). In the book of Acts, it reads, “They presented these seven to the apostles, who prayed and laid their hands on them” (Acts 6:6 NIV). In connection to how Joshua was chosen to take the place of his predecessor and how Moses responded to the charge, Henry comments that envious spirits do not love their successors; but Moses was not one of these.
Henry’s comment concerning the inability to function efficiently as the result of lacking graces and the gifts of the Spirit is absolutely true. Ministers struggle in planting churches or leading new congregation as the result of lacking the graces, the anointing, and the gifts of Spirit to be functional. In Joshua’s case, he had all the spiritual graces, the gifts, and the anointing to function as the result of impartation he received from God. Ministers of today’s generational churches are encouraged to seek Joshua’s graces, gifts, and the anointing to function efficiently and productively.
Personal Prayer Life
God transfers His anointing to believers when believers become obedience to His will while spending much time in prayer and fasting. God prepares believers and anoints them for effective ministry as they pray, fast, and meditate on His word. During Jesus’ ministry, he spent much time in praying and fasting. Before starting his ministry, he fasted and prayed for forty days (Matt 4:1–11). Before, he ministered, he went always on the mountain top and prayed the whole night (Luke 6:12). This is the secret of the anointed, effective, and the productive ministry. The last three transfers of God’s anointing are analogously incorporated into radiation and conduction transmissions. The spoken word and personal prayer life pass over space to get to the intended recipient while tangibility (touch) is directly connected to material contact.
Sustainability Of The Anointing
This thesis section discusses three virtues the anointing of God can be unrelenting in the life of the minister of God for effective ministry. Although, there is a fruit of the Holy Spirit mentioned in Gal 5: 22–23, that produces nine parts when the individual is regenerated, the virtues that include obedience, charity, and humility should be practical in the minister of God to enable him walks in the anointing to do exploits. The nine parts of the fruit of the Holy Spirit that are synonymous categorically called fruits (the nine parts) of righteousness are encapsulated in the above-mentioned virtues. These attributes are virtues a child of God needs to function efficiently and productively in God’s anointing. The lack of these virtues in the life of the minister of God leads to dysfunctional spiritual capability in the anointing. The failure to practice these virtues in the Christian life is directly proportional to sinful lifestyle. The inability to practice one leads to not practicing the other two. All must be present in the life of the minister to be functional in ministry. These virtues are the marks of an anointed individual. One does not have one without the others because they are spiritual virtues that a minister of God must live in them practically; therefore, believers are admonished to walk in the Spirit in order to practice them (Gal 5:16). The nine parts of the fruit of the Holy Spirit that include love, joy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, faith, meekness, temperance, and goodness are bedrocks that empower the believer to practice the listed virtues; therefore, it is not an option, but it is a necessity for believers to walk in them because they give birth to excellence. It should be understood that excellence is not an option, but it is a prevailing attitude toward a thing. In this light, in order to walk continually in the anointing of God, the below listed virtues must be practiced without precondition. Fortunately, believers are called to prevail according to scripture (Rom 8:37).
Obedience is the voluntary action of an individual; therefore, it is learned and practiced daily as believers walk with God. It is paradoxical to obey the person whom you cannot see. God is Spirit who has characteristics of a person; therefore, He demands obedience from believers to enable Him accomplishes His purpose through them. It is impossible to function in God’s anointing if disobedience is present in the life of the servant of God. In this light, scriptures will be examined to see the magnitude of disobedience. Samuel explains the enormity of disobedience in the following sentences, “And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the Lord said, arise, anoint him: for this is he. Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah. But the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him” (1 Sam 16:12–14KJV).
As Samuel grew older, he had appointed his two sons to succeed him. Joel, that signifies “the Lord is God,” and Abijah, that signifies“my father is the Lord,”both were supposed to have succeeded him. Israel having desired to be like the surrounding nations, requested for a king (1 Sam 8:4–5); then, Saul was chosen and anointed to be king of Israel according to the desire of the people. God allowed this to happen in order to allow His justice to be in line with His attributes. After Saul was chosen and inaugurated to be king, God sent him to totally exterminate the enemies (Amalekites) of Israel. King Saul disobeyed God by sparing king Agag and the best cattle (1 Samuel 15). God rejected him as king and David was chosen and anointed as king of Israel. After David was anointed, the anointing was lifted from Saul and transferred to David. King Saul’s anointing became dormant as the result of disobedience toward holy things. Disobedience inactivates spiritual empowerment upon a believer dissembling him or her to fulfill his or her calling to ministry. Believers will bear fruits and respond to the needs of the dying world engulfed with sin, sickness, traumas, and all kinds of predicaments provided they abide in the Lord. Jesus said this in the following sentences, “I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I am in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abides in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me” (John 15:1–4 KJV). Believers become candidates for God’s use as they clean themselves from the former lust through obedience; consequently, they become vessels for the use of God. Paul admonished Timothy and Christians in general in the following sentences, “But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour. If a man therefore purges himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master’s use, and prepared unto every good work”(2 Tim 2:20–21 KJV). Chryssavgis explains that there is a need to consider authority and obedience with reference to tradition and spirituality in the ecclesiastical body of Christ. Understanding spirituality and authority at heart contributes to one’s obedience in the local church that also enhances how one responds to God in holy things. One’s response to obedience varies based on one’s biblical foundation, church’s orientation, and one’s personal relationship with God. He explains the connection between spirituality and tradition to that of authority and obedience in the following: Chryssavgis concludes that obedience is part of the spiritual development and lifestyle of Christians.
Charity known as agape is defined as the ability to love unconditionally. Loving unconditionally enables the believers to overcome multitude of sins. In Peter, it reads, “Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers a multitude of sins” (1 Pet 4:8 NIV). A believer who walks and functions in God’s anointing without measure is the believer who loves unconditionally. God will allow things to come on one’s way that one does not desire. The reason God allows such things is to train and to prepare one for the effectual anointing operation in one’s life and ministry. Apostle Paul describes the characteristics and the enormity of charity in the following sentences, “Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains,and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away” (1 Cor 13:1–8 KJV).
The statements Paul made in the above sentences are very strong concerning the significance of love in the Christian life. Should one be used of God, love is not an option, but it is a necessity for believers to excel in excellence in order to make impart to this generation. Love is an affinity instrument God needs to anoint one’s call and ministerial life. This love is called agape (God’s love).
Humility is the virtue that enables a servant of God to accept his or he short comings and immediately to repent from them despite of his or her position in ministry, anointing, economic or social status, educational, and theological or biblical scholarship. It is meekness or a status of nothingness with respect to how the individual responds to God’s agenda. Humility is the virtue that must be practiced to continually have an anointed life and ministry that one has been called to do and to be. A minister of God cannot give out what he or she does not possess. Humility is mark that God looks for in order to use a man to do the unusual and the exploits. Humility is the virtue of knowing God and walking in his commandments. It is connected to love and obedience. One cannot love God and obey Him without humility. Self-centeredness must die to enable an individual to love God and to obey Him. In Psalm, it reads, “The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise” (Ps 51:17 KJV). The contextualization of this scripture originates from David’s sin of adultery after having yielded to the temptation to have Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam pregnant followed by murder. The prophet Nathan confronts David of his sin; as the result, David breaks down, recognizes his sin, repents, and asks for forgiveness (2 Samuel 12). David did not consider his position as the king of Israel to argue with the prophet, but he felt apologetic for his erroneous liability and asked for mercy. David recognizes that God forgives those whose hearts are broken through humility and he testifies that God will not despise such heart. David was a humble individual; therefore, God called him a man after His heart.Scott states that David was the man after God’s heart as the result of his humility.
According to the scriptures, Moses was the most humble man on earth; for this reason, it is not astonishing that God used Moses more than any man on planet earth. It reads, “Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men who were upon the face of the earth” (Num 12:3 KJV). In conclusion concerning these virtues (obedience, charity, and humility), Apostle Peter summarizes, “Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall (2 Pet 1:3–10 KJV).
Chapter 4 Summary
Based on this research study, there are four categories of gifts mentioned in scriptures. They include charisma, doma, doron, and dorea.Charisma is God’s gracious gift given to believers by the Holy Spirit for spiritual empowerment for Christian service. Doma is the gift category of gifts given to men by God for the Christian ministries in order to edify the body of Christ. Doron is a gift category of gifts given by men to God for sacrifice, and dorea is the gift category given by God to men for salvation. The chapter discusses the three analogies used to explain to the natural mind the mystical event that occurs when God transfers His anointing to meet human’s spiritual, emotional, social, and physical needs.In conclusion, the chapter discusses the virtues of obedience, charity, and humility that are vital to the sustenance of God’s anointing in the life of the minister of God for effective ministry function.
In the context of biblical theology, the anointing is defined as material in term of the oil and as the spiritual in term of the Holy Spirit. Based on ancient history, the material part of the anointing symbolism has been used for numeral reasons. The oil in ancient time was used as the result of the ordinary, ritual, religious, the cause of climate change, medicinal, and official. Ordinarily, it was used to anoint guests in order to show respect. Its use toward guests was an indication of welcoming the guests in the home. It was used in time of tragic events to indicate mourning and after the mourning, the use was terminated. In ritual, the pagans also used the oil in the time of coronation of their kings. This occurred in Assyria, Babylon, Hittites, Egypt, and Canaan. According to sources, the practice of the use of the oil in Canaan before the arrival of the children of Israel in the land was already in practice. On the religious basis, priests, prophets, and kings were anointed to be set apart for the use of Jehovah. Not only were these individuals anointed, but also inanimate objects in the temple and weapons of warfare were also anointed with oil for consecration. With respect to climate change, the oil was also used by primitive men to sooth their cracked skin since oil has a curative property to heal sores especially those of the ailments of the skin. The hot and dry climatic environment irritated excessive perspiration and since oil is a poor conductor of heat, it prevents excessive perspiration by closing the pores on the skin. This necessitated the use of the oil to serve for medicinal purposes for the healing of cracked skins and sores of primitive men. The use of the oil officially was based on divine election. The king of Israel was anointed with oil during his inaugural ceremony to serve as the representative of God to the children of Israel. God was ruling from heaven through the human king. The king had the official responsibilities to protect property, land, and progeny; in order to accomplish this, he must be anointed with oil and to take command from God; unfortunately, many of the kings failed as the result of idolatry.
The anointing oil is categorically named in Hebrew and Greek languages to indicate different applications based on specific situations. The name for the anointing in Hebrew is mashach and mashiyach. Mashach is a verb in Hebrew that signifies to anoint someone by rubbing olive oil on the person for spiritual empowerment while mashiyach is the noun signifying the Anointed One or the Messiah of the Messianic prince of Israel. Morphologically in Greek, the anointing also takes up different forms indicating different situations. Muron is the anointing oil or ointment used to anoint dead body or to show respect to a guest. Elaion is the olive anointing oil used to feed lamps and it is used in the healing of the sick. Aleipho is the verb meaning to physically anoint the body with olive oil and this anointing is also used in the anointing of the dead and healing of the sick. Chrio is the verb that signifies to anoint with olive oil that influences the empowering of the Holy Spirit on the individuals and to enable them to serve as priests, prophets, and kings. Charisma is the end result of chrio. It is the anointing of the Holy Spirit upon the believer that guides him or her in the preferred will of God. While the anointing is defined in the context of the oil and the Spirit, the anointing of the Holy Spirit is symbolically and metaphorically defined in the contexts of the rain, the water, the wind, the wine, and the fire. These symbolism describes the characteristics of the Holy Spirit in the life of Church.
The universal church is obligated prototypically to follow Christ’s ministry in delivering didactic and holistic services to humanity. To be prototypical of Christ’s ministry, the church must teach, preach, deliver, and heal. These ministries are vital to a sustainable, functional, efficient, and a productive church ministry. The viability of these ministries to exist in the church depends on the works of the Holy Spirit; therefore, ministers of the gospel and church members are encouraged to cultivate God’s anointing in their lives through obedience. Despite of theological degree one attains in academia, the inability to cultivate and to function in God’s anointing is the result failure to running functional ministries; therefore, the anointing is the necessity and excellence in doing ministry. Excellence is not an option, but it is a prevailing attitude toward a thing. Developing excellence in the Christian ministry is directly proportional to cultivating God’s anointing through obedience and prayer lifestyle. Obedience and prayer lifestyle are attitudes toward holy things in the Christian ministry. Apostle Paul writes, “He has made us competent as ministers of a new covenant—not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life” (2 Cor 3:6 NIV). The church of Christ should minister deliverance and healing to authenticate God’s word to be real to the dying world. Miracles settle the matter in this perverted and sinful generation. Jesus preached, taught, delivered, and healed and he drew the multitude. Miracles settled the predicament of mankind and they serve as proofs to reveal God to the dying world since God is Spirit. Indeed the church is called to minister to the poor, the brokenhearted, the captives, the blind, and the oppressed. The Church cannot fulfill this task fully without the anointing. In biblical history in Israel, a deliverer was promised as prophesied in the Hebrew scriptures of the Old Testament. This fulfillment of the promise became embodied when the virgin gave birth to a Son named “Immanuel” that signifies God is with us. After the fulfillment of the prediction, Jesus is named as the Messiah in Hebrew or as Christos in Greek that signifies the Anointed One. Prior to Jesus being anointed by the Holy Spirit, the Old Testament theocratic government had practiced the anointing ceremony as commanded by God. In this light, the priests, the prophets, and the kings were anointed to serve in their various offices. After the dispensation of the Old Covenant era, Jesus ushered the New Covenant through his death on the cross in order to fulfill the Old Covenant that was powerless to save as the result of the weakening of the sinful nature; therefore, he introduced the Law of the Spirit in Christ Jesus (Rom 8:1–16; Jer 31:31–34). After Jesus having spent 33 years on planet early, he died, buried, resurrected, and ascended into heaven. After his ascension into heaven, he gave gifts unto men (Eph 4:8–11). These men include the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the pastors, and the teachers. These men are anointed and placed over the New Testament church ministry to edify the body of Christ. With the obedience of these men to the call, souls are won to the saving grace of Jesus Christ and these souls are integrated into the kingdom of God and become carriers of the anointing making all believers to be partakers of the priesthood ministry. With respect to the above highlights, the subject on the necessity of the anointing coupled with the conceptual, biblical, and theological understandings of it with reference to its definition, origin, utilization, practices, and application in the pre-modern world serves as the rudimentary foundation to understanding the anointing necessarily in term of application in the postmodern world in respective of ministry’s efficiency. The knowledge of this spiritual resource (the anointing) and how it is cultivated is vital to a sustainable and viable Christian ministry’s operation for efficiency and productivity. Understanding its biblical theology and practice in scriptures enables the ecclesiastical body of Christ to avoid the ideological approach in doing ministry but to rely on the works of the Holy Spirit’s empowerment in demonstrating the power (anointing) of God in meeting the needs of the 21st Century Church Ministry and the world at large.
Pastor Jallah Yelorbah Koiyan, M.Div, Founder, Praise Ministries International, Inc
James Strong, Strong’s Concordance, n.p. [Cited 2 February]. Online: http://www.biblehub.com/greek/652htm.
Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon (Electronic Database: Bible Soft, Inc), 2002, 2003, 2011, n.p. [Cited 17 November 2016]. Online: Online: www. http://biblehub.com/greek/4982.htm.
Ervin Budiselić, “The Impartation of the Gifts of the Spirit in Paul’s Theology,” n.p. [Cited February 2017]. Online: www. email@example.com.
James Strong, Strong’s Concordance, n.p. [Cited 11 February 2017]. Online: http://biblehub.com/greek/5321.htm.
Random House, “Speaking in Tongues,”n.p. [Cited 11 February 2017]. Online: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/noblesse-oblige.
Gordon Fee, “TonguesLeast of the Gifts: Some Exegetical Observations on 1 Corinthians 12–14,” P 2, No. 2 (1980): 10–14.
Kerry Johnson, “Is the Interpretation of Tongues the Same as Prophecy,”n.p. [Cited 11 February 2017]. Online: http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/50494-is-the-interpretation-of.
Margaret M. Poloma, “Those Controversial Gifts: Prophecy, Dreams, Visions, Tongues, Interpretation, Healing,”RSR 9, No. 4 (1983): 359–360.
Scott A. Davison ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, n.p. [31 May 2014]. Online: https://plato.stanford.edu/enties/prophecy.
Random House, ed., “Origin of Prophecy,”n.p. [Cited 12 February 2017]. Online: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/prophecy.
David F. Farnell, “The Gift of Prophecy in the New Testament,” TMSJ 25, No. 2 (2014): 45–62.
Richard L Mayhue, “The Gifts of Healing,”TMSJ 25, No. 2(2014): 17–28.
“Biography of Archbishop Benson Idahosa, His Life and Ministry, How He Started, His Exploits and Death,”n.p. [Cited 18 February 2017]. Online: http://www.gospelepistle.com/2015/10/biography-of-archbishop-benson-idahosa.html.
Chris Oyakhilome, “Mighty Signs and Wonders,”n.p. [Cited 18 February 2017]. Online: http://www.youTube.com.
“Indonesia Crusade with TB Joshua–Day 2,”n.p. [Cited 18 February 2017]. Online: www. Youtube.com.
Lanier J. Burns, “Reemphasis on the Purpose of the Sign Gifts,”BS 132, No. 527 (1975): 242–249.
B. A. Gerrish, “The Gift of Saving Faith,”TCC 116, No. 27(1999): 968–971.
John Edmiston, “Spiritual Gifts,” n.p. [Cited 15 February 2017]. Online: www.GlobalChristians.org.
Charles Stanley, “What are the Spiritual Gifts of the Word of Wisdom and the Word of Knowledge,”n.p. [Cited 13 February 2017]. Online: http://www.gotqustions.org/word-wisdom-knowledge.html.
Charles Stanley, “What are the Spiritual Gifts of the Word of Wisdom and the Word of Knowledge,”n.p. [Cited 13 February 2017]. Online: http://www.gotqustions.org/word-wisdom-knowledge.html.
 Kevin Knight, Catholic Encyclopedia, n.p. [Cited 13 February 2017]. Online: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05028b.htm.
George Merriam and Charles Merriam, Merriam-Webster Dictionary, n.p. [Cited 13 February 2017]. Online: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/radiation.
Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, n.p. [Cited February 2017]. Online: http://biblehub.com/greek/4639.htm.
Diana Thomson, “St. Peter Healing the Sick With His Shadow,”TCC 110, No. 22(1993): 747.
Michael A. Clarke, “Claiming Elijah’s Mantle: Young Adults and the Life of the Church,”ATR 89, No. 1 (2007): 59–68.
Matthew Henry, Numbers 27:18, n.p. [Cited 17 February 2017]. Online: http://biblehub.com/numbers/27-18.htm.
John Chryssavgis, “Obedience, Hierarchy and Asceticism: The Concept of Spiritual Authority in the Church,” St VTQ 34, No. 1 (1990): 49–60.
David Guzik, “2 Samuel 11–David’s Adultery and Murder,”n.p. [Cited 18 February 2017]. Online: https://enduringwood,com/commentary/2-Samuel-11.
Jerold Aust, “Profiles of Faith: David–A Man after God’s Heart,”n.p. [Cited 19 February 2017]. Online: http://www.ucg.org/the-good-news/profiles-of-faith-david-a-mad-after-God’s heart.