Examination of the Primary Text

CHAPTER 2

Introduction

This chapter discusses the historical context of the gospel of Luke and introduces the core scripture of the thesis followed by the textual analysis. After the analysis of the scriptural text, it discusses the five categories of humanity under the biblical theology of the anointing using the primary and secondary sources to substantiate the argument valid that is applicable to today’s church ministry prototypical of Christ’s ideology concerning how ministry functions in delivering didactic and holistic services to humanity. It concludes with the ecclesiology in mission in the context of Luke 4:18 and explains the theological and practical implications concerning how church responds to mission in this generation in order to fulfill divine mandate.

Historical Context

The name of the author for the book of Luke does not appear; however, there is evidence which gives reference that the book is a companion to the book of Acts based on its language and the structure. The two books are addressed to the identical individual, Theophillus, and the second volume refers to the primary according to Acts 1:1. According to the structure in certain sections of the book, the use of the personal pronoun “we” is highlighted in the subsequent scriptures (Acts 16:10–17; 20:5–15; 21:1–18; 27:1–28) according to the NIV Study Bible.[1] The personal pronoun used in these sections of the book indicates that the author was with Paul when the events described in these passages occurred; therefore, Luke, the Doctor (Col 4:14), the dear companion and fellow worker of Paul (Phlm 24) becomes the most likely author of the book. His authorship is supported by the early Christian writings of the Muratorian Canon, A.D 170, and the works of Irenaeus, c. 180.[2] He was a Gentile by birth and well educated in the Hellenistic Greek culture, a physician and a travelled companion to Paul at various times of his second missionary adventurism and his imprisonment in Rome. He was a comrade who remained with the apostle when others had deserted (2 Tim 4:11). The book of Luke is especially addressed to Theophillus, the lover of God, for his own education and the instruction of those among whom the book would be disseminated. Luke wrote to indicate that the place of the Gentile Christian in God’s kingdom is based on the doctrinal teaching of Jesus Christ. The book was written probably around AD. 59– 63 or 70s or 80s as recorded in the NIV Study Bible.[3] Having discussed the historical context of the gospel of Luke, the mentioned passage from the gospel below serves as the core of the thesis deliberation. This passage directs the conversation on the subsequent pages of this paper while it textually analyzes the underline sentence. The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised (Luke 4:18 KJV).

Textual Analysis

He Has Anointed Me

The lexicon form for the Greek verb, echrisen (ἔχρισέν), ischrió (χρίω) that signifies, to anoint by pouring or rubbing olive oil on someone that represents the flow or the empowering of the Holy Spirit. It is an act of presenting someone as divinely authorized or appointed by God to serve as prophet, priest, or king (1Kgs 19:16; Lev 8:12; Ps 133:2; 1 Sam 10:1; 2 Sam 2:4; 5:3)[4] It is an aorist verb used in the Greek that indicates an event was completed in the past before the pronouncement was made that is significance in this point in time. God anointed Jesus to preach the good news to the poor, to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed and to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor. When God anoints an individual, the anointing will flow through the power of the Holy Spirit without repentant (Rom 11:29). The verb conjugation, echrisen (ἔχρισέν), signifying “He has anointed” appears five times in the following scriptures (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38; 2 Cor 1:21; Heb 1:9). It refers to a person who received the anointing among the Hebrews[5]. God consecrated Jesus to the Messianic office and furnished him with the power necessary to administer to the needy of his time. He does it today through believers by the anointing of the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:18; Ps 44:8; John 14:12). The anointing that was placed on Jesus thousands of years ago is still effective in this generation. The church of Jesus Christ is the possessor or the carrier of this anointing (chrio). Jesus said, “Very truly I tell you, whoever believes in me will do the works I have been doing, and they will do even greater works than these, because I am going to the Father” (John 14:12 NIV). The existing of Ecclesia confirms the continuum of the operation of the anointing to do exactly what has been recorded in Luke 4:18.

Biblical Theology Of The Anointing In Ministry

The Teaching And Preaching Ministries

Examining The Primary Sources

The Poor

Jesus was anointed primarily to preach the gospel to the poor. The poor or the underprivileged have been ignored as the result of their economic and social statuses. In several of the nations of the world, the underprivileged are rejected continuously and considered insignificant to society because they cannot economically and socially contribute to their nations. Rhodes writes, “We live in an imperfect world with a huge imbalance of wealth and power. God is a God of justice and wants his people to make a difference in the world, standing up for those who cannot stand up for themselves and sharing what we have with those who have nothing.”[6] God has spoken against injustice in the Bible with respect to how the underprivileged were treated in Israel. God has given special acclamation concerning how the poor should be treated. In the book of Deuteronomy, it reads, “If in any of the towns in the land that the Lord your God is giving you there is a fellow Israelite in need, then do not be selfish and refuse to help him. Instead, be generous and lend him as much as he needs” (Deut 15:7–8 NIV). The prophet Jeremiah adds, “I, the Lord, command you to do what is just and right. Protect the person who is being cheated from the one who is cheating him. Do not ill-treat or oppress foreigners, orphans, or widows; and do not kill innocent people in this holy place” (Jer 22:3 NIV). These two verses discuss about sharing with the poor and treating the orphans, widows, foreigners, and the innocent with justice and prohibit humanity to exterminate innocent people.

            Jesus lived in an environment where the disadvantaged were neglected. In his ministry, he was anointed to minister salvation to the unfortunate. In his ministration and interaction with the affluent, he mentioned that it is hard for the affluent to go to heaven than could be easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (Matt 19:24). This statement indicates how hard hear-ted the wealthy man is when it comes to accepting the gospel in rejoinder to giving all his possession to the underprivileged. God cares for the underprivileged despite of their statuses. The poor can easily accept God than the affluent could. In his confirmed prophetic declaration, Jesus reminded the people in his hometown concerning the prophetic utterance made by the prophet Isaiah: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has chosen me to bring good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind; to set free the oppressed and announce that the time has come when the Lord will save his people” (Luke 4:18–19 NASV). In the preaching ministry of Jesus, he did not only preach God’s word; but, he also fed the five thousand (Matt 14:13–21). After having ministered didactically to the multitude, he sensed that they were famished; as the result, he holistically ministered to their domains (emotional, social, physical, and the spiritual). Ministry is not only didactic, but it is also holistic. The preaching ministry of the church is expectant to follow the prototype of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in order to be successful. Jesus taught and preached by the anointing of God to fully minister to his audience to make impart (Matt 7:29). People were amazed at his teaching because he taught with authority by the anointing of God (Mark 1:22). Jesus was interrogated by his audience by what authority he did these things (Matt 21:2). His teaching was different and amazing because he taught by the anointing of God. It should be implicit that Jesus operated as man in ministry; therefore, he needed the anointing of God to be effective and productive in ministry. Ministers of God in this generation need God’s anointing to do efficient and productive ministry. Because Jesus was anointed, he taught with divine revelation. The anointing teaches according to the scripture. John writes, “As for you, the anointing you received from him remains in you, and you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things and as that anointing is real, not counterfeit—just as it has taught you, remain in him” (1 John 2:27 NIV). Jesus was anointed with charisma to teach his audience. Charisma is the special endowment of the Holy Spirit to teach every believer about all things (1 John 2:20, 27) and to enable believers to stand firm in Christ (2 Cor 1:21–22). According to Vine’s, it refers to the endowment upon believers by the operation of the Holy Spirit in the church for the common good of all by ministering to them with such gift (1 Cor 12).[7]

Examining The Secondary Sources

The Poor

Since Jesus was anointed to minister to the poor, what is the church’s commitment to ministering to the poor? Are there advocates or responders to God’s divine mandate recorded in Deut 15: 7–8 and Jer 22:3 concerning ministering to the needs of the poor and protecting the vulnerable orphans, widows, and the innocent concerning justice? This question is answered theoretically after the examination of the secondary literature. Tuininga asserts that civil magistrate is appointed as God’s servant to use the sword to ensure that the poor receive at least a modicum of equity.[8] This statement is very vital concerning whom the citizens of nations elect or appoint to be leaders. If nations of the world will have God fearing leaders, the problem of injustice perpetrated against the underprivileged or the vulnerable will be minimal. The justice system will do the right thing because she fears God. Leaders should know that every human being under the sun despite of his or her economic and social status was created by God; therefore, he or she should be treated fairly in society. It is a direct sin to do wrong to the poor. Doing the wrong to the poor is doing the wrong to God. This is the reason God punishes leaders and nations because of injustice perpetrated against the poor. Kristopher supplements that poverty is a social, psychological, and spiritual captivity.[9] The Church of Jesus Christ is obligated to address poverty in Christendom. In the third world countries, poverty is prevalent; as the result, people find it difficult to live a balanced lifestyle. The lack of shelter, clothing, medical treatment, and food cause depression, illness, suicide attempt, backsliding in the church, prostitution, thefts, and the increase in crime rate on the geometric progression. Many church people find it difficult to live holy lifestyle as the result of poverty. Poverty brings marginalization and makes the rich to form class system. Such marginalization that includes nepotism, sectionalism, racism, and sexism can devastate the nuclear family, individual, and culture. Swart writes that as Disciples of Christ, all of us have the responsibility to play a role in the creation of the social order based on justice.[10] This is true in the sense that the church is the representative of God on earth. Paul declared in 2 Cor 5:20 that the church is the ambassador for Christ. The church should stand for justice and defend the feeble in society. In former time, the church had taken the poor into consideration by adopting programs to help; equally so, the church in recent time has included the poor in mission works as to fulfill divine mandate; however, much still needs to be done. The church needs to wake up now because the situation concerning the poor has changed and the church seems to neglect that part of the mission works. Power supports this statement and he writes that the church’s work for the poor and the approach to poverty have changed in term how the poor are classified.[11] If the church as the body collectively cannot respond to the underprivileged, what is the individual Christian responsibility in ministering to one poor individual? Does it exclude our financial and spiritual responsibility before God and man? Does it have to do with how much one possesses in life with respect to money and material gain? The Christian is commanded to give regardless of economic status.[12] In conclusion, the teaching and preaching ministries of Jesus Christ were tailored to the poor. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of God (Matt 5:3 KJV).

The Deliverance And Healing Ministries

Examining The Primary Sources

The Broken Hearted

In the deliverance ministry of Jesus, he was also secondarily anointed to heal the broken hearted. The broken hearted are individuals whose inner selves are crushed or broken as the result of calamity. The individuals have experienced a traumatic event in the form of physical or spiritual maladies that tend to control their personalities or behavioral patterns. God cares for the broken hearted; therefore, he anointed and sent Jesus as the deliverer and healer. David testifies, “He heals the brokenhearted and binds up their wounds” (Ps 147:3 NIV). He adds, “The lord is close to the brokenhearted and saves those who are crushed in spirit” (Ps 34:18 NIV). Peter encourages, “Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you” (1 Pet 5:7 NIV). While believers live in this world, they will eventually experience situation undesirable; however, the Lord has admonished believers to take heart because he has overcome the world (John 16:33). Paul confirms, “We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not abandoned; struck down, but not destroyed.We always carry around in our body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be revealed in our body” (2 Cor 4:8–10 NIV). The battle faced today was fought with victory when Jesus died and rose from the grave; therefore, the battle faced today is the replay and victory is assured absolutely.

Examining The Secondary Sources

The Broken Hearted

Broken hearted individuals do not show physiological or psychological symptoms because this broken heartedness is not related to any of the above mentioned, but it is related to the state of lawlessness against God according to the Hebrew scripture. Jesus was anointed to heal individuals whose spirits have been crushed as the result of sin influence. Broken heartedness is not physical, but it is a spiritual condition since the heart in the biblical perspective is the center of inner life, intention, and mind divorced from the biological heart. The use of the heart in the Bible to represent the condition of man’s spirit is metaphorical. Boyle comments that biblical broken hearts are neither physiological nor psychological but lawless as embodied in the Hebrew Scriptures as cripple legs that have walked deviant paths, stumbled, and fallen against the law.[13]

                If God cares for the broken hearted individuals and binds up their wounds, it implies that broken heartedness has no connectivity with the biological, but it is associated with the condition of man’s attitude toward God’s commandment. The broken heartedness has to do with how man responds to God in relationship with keeping His law.[14] The institution of chaplaincy ministry in hospital and prison and Certified Pastoral Education to help patients and prisoners is due to the issues of heart brokenness faced by patients and inmates. Medical doctors will attend to patient’s physiological or medical need; nevertheless, Pastoral counselors or chaplains are needed to attend to the spiritual need of the soul or the heart. In like manner, prison authorities monitor the physical need and how inmates conduct themselves in the prison situation; analogously, chaplains or pastoral counselors will need to visit inmates in prison to talk with them and offer prayer for spiritual healing. Broken hearted people need God’s intervention in hospital and prison. Their spirits are crushed as the result of sins. Sin is the root cause of illness and crime in the societal environments. David complements that we should never cease to care for the patient heart condition spiritually if we cannot cure the biological heart.[15]

Examining The Primary Sources

The Prisoners

God anointed Jesus of Nazareth thirdly to proclaim deliverance to the prisoners. This captivity is not related to physical one, but it is related to spiritual captivity. The imprisonment of the human race captivated by sin moved God to send His Son to die for sin thereby bringing redemption to humanity through his shed blood on the Calvary cross. Through Jesus’ shed blood, the human race received redemption (deliverance) for the forgiveness of sins (Eph 1:7; Col 1:14). In Titus, it reads, “Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works” (Titus 2:14 KJV). Paul writes, “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, curse is every one that hangeth on a tree” (Gal 3:13 KJV). In the book of Hebrews, it reads, “Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us” (Heb 9:12 KJV).

            Jesus was anointed to give freedom to the prisoners. While Jesus ministered deliverance to the captives, he also imparted them to make them deliverers in bringing deliverance to others through the anointing of God. God in time past has been in the ministry of impartation as recorded in the following passages: “I am the Lord, I have called you in righteousness, I will also hold you by the hand and watch over you, and I will appoint you as a covenant to the people, as a light to the nations, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the dungeon and those who dwell in darkness from the prison” (Isa 42:6–7 NIV). The prophet Zechariah adds, “As for you also, because of the blood of my covenant with you, I have set your prisoners free from the waterless pit. Return to the stronghold, O prisoners who have the hope; this very day I am declaring that I will restore double to you” (Zech 9:11–12 NIV). David through the Spirit of intercession advocates, “Let the groaning of the prisoner come before you; according to the greatness of your power preserve those who are doomed to die” (Ps 79:11 NIV).

            The Greek meaning of prisoner is someone who has been conquered or taken by the spear as prisoner of war during warfare. Jesus was not anointed to fight physical war, but he was anointed purposely to fight a spiritual war. During the days of Jesus’ ministry on earth, many people were mesmerized by the enemy through diseases of all kinds. For example, the woman who was bent for eighteen years (Luke 13:10–17) and the demoniac at the cemetery (Mark 1:32; 16:17–18; Luke 6:17–18) were delivered and healed when they encountered Jesus. Jesus delivered and healed people from demons and diseases because he operated by the anointing called exousia. Exousia is a Greek word that indicates the authority Jesus has over demons to cast them out of people’s lives (Luke 4:36). It also indicates the authority the disciples of Jesus have over demons and diseases (Luke 9:1–2; Matt 10:1). Jesus operated by the anointing called charisma to teach and to preach. This anointing teaches according to 1 John 2:27.

Examining The Secondary Sources

The Prisoners

Primarily, when the terminology prisoner is looked at in the Greek context, it presents the denotation of a captive who is taken in warfare by the enemy. The prisoner of war can be a civilian or a militant whose right has been violated as the result of activity predicative of the person; as the result, the imprisonment is inevitable and must be carried out to control the movement of the detainees. When the word prisoner is mentioned in the practical delineation, it signifies that something has gone wrong and there is a state of disorder in the societal environment and the responsible official or government has the political responsibility to bring peace into the social order by using punitive justice system to punish the perpetrator. This is what the Irish did to bring order during the revolution in Ireland between 1916 and 1923. The journal article entitled, “Irish Political Prisoner Culture explains that imprisonment holds a powerful place in the traditions and imagination of Irish nationalism.[16] In contrast to the insurgency in the revolutionary endeavor of Ireland, Jesus did not come to advocate for political freedom, but he came to liberate humanity who were under the spiritual captivity of Satan. Jesus’ ministry to liberate the captives was contrary to what the children of Israel anticipated; for this reason, he was rejected and they did not perceive him as the Messiah. His ministry to the world was misconstrued by the Jewish community; therefore, they crucified him based on hatred. He spoke against their traditions and injustices in society concerning how other people were being treated by those who considered themselves to be the elites of the time.

Examining The Primary Sources

The Blind

God anointed Jesus fourthly to preach recovery to the blind. The blindness according to the Greek context denotes both physical and mental blindness an individual experiences as the result of disease and the inability to respond to God lawfully. The mental blindness is the spiritual one that disables an individual to understand spiritual things. God anointed Jesus to heal both physical and mental blindness according to scriptures. In John gospel, Jesus healed a man born blind from birth. After the healing, the Pharisees questioned and investigated the healing of the man because Jesus had healed him on the Sabbath. In their investigation and questioning, the blind man was thrown out. Jesus heard that the man has been thrown out as the result of his testimony. Jesus said, “For judgment I have come into this world, so that the blind will see and those who see will become blind” (John 9:39 NIV). Paul prayed for the Christians in Ephesus for God to open the understanding of their hearts (Eph 1:18–19). Blindness is both physical and spiritual; eventually, Jesus was commissioned to heal both physical and spiritual blindness. In Kings, it reads, “Then Elisha prayed and said, “Oh! Lord, I pray, open his eyes that he may see “And the Lord opened the servant’s eyes and he saw; and behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha” (2 Kings 6:17 NASV). In Matt 20:29–34, Jesus healed two blind men in departing from Jericho. Jesus declared his mission in Luke 4:18 that he was anointed and sent to proclaim recovery of sight for the blind.

Examining The Secondary Sources

The Blind

Despite of Jesus being anointed and sent by God to recover both physical and spiritual blindness of humanity, his people rejected him because they were spiritually blind. John declares that Jesus was rejected by his own people (John 1:11). The nation of Israel rejected the Messiah; therefore, it was difficult for Jesus to perform miracles in his own township due to spiritual blindness. Luke writes quoting Jesus, “I tell you the truth,” he continued, “no prophet is accepted in his hometown” (Luke 4:24 NIV). Rhebergen comments that we need to have the attitude of the blind man that Jesus caused to see, both physically and spiritually.[17]

            Jesus healed the man on the day of the Sabbath; consequently, the Pharisees interrogated him. They did not want him to testify about his healing before the public; for this reason, he was ostracized. During his second encounter with the Messiah, his spiritual blindness was also healed after having received the physical healing from blindness. Harrison concludes that one man received sight from our Lord, then with a growing apprehension of His greatness, received the Lord Himself, while the leaders of the people, resisting the light of the testimony and reason, refused also the Light of life.[18]

Examining The Primary Sources

The Oppressed

Jesus was not only anointed to heal the blind, but he was also anointed fifthly to release freedom for the oppressed. In Greek,tethrausmenou,(τεθραυσμένους) is an individual who has been crushed or broken by situation that is traumatic (spiritual, physical, emotional, and psychological). God has spoken against injustice perpetrated against the vulnerable in scriptures as He used prophets of old to do so. Zechariah advocates, “Do not oppress the widow or the fatherless, the foreigner or the poor. Do not plot evil against each other” (Zech 7:10 NIV). In the book of Proverbs, it reads, “Do not exploit the poor because they are poor and do not crush the needy in court for the lord will take up their case and will exact life for life” (Prov 22:22–23 NIV). The categories of people mentioned in these scriptures are prone to vulnerability; therefore, the Lord has taken a drastic action against their oppressors. Oppression is the act of denying someone inalienable right to exist and to be exercised. For example, slavery is an act of oppression that existed during the 18th century when slaves were taken from Africa and put on board the ship as sardines arranged in their containers. Whosoever that was involved in such act was used of Satan to deny humanity of its God’s given rights and privileges. Despite of physical oppression that is engineered by Satan through the use of human vessels, there are also spiritual oppression of sins and demonic manipulations that control the daily living conditions of humanity. Paul writes that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the freedom of the children of God (Rom 8:19–23).

            Satan used sin in the lives of Adam and Eve to birth spiritual oppression to the human race. As the result of this spiritual rebelliousness, the entire mankind became sinners by nature (Gen 3:1–15). Sin entered the world through one man Adam; therefore, it followed death, sickness, failures, oppression, depression, and regressions (Rom 5:12–17). Paul said in the above scripture, because of sin committed, the entire creation is subjected to frustration and not only the creation, but even believers who are regenerated wait for their bodies to be redeemed. This is the reason despite of one’s church going or living for God faithfully, one still suffers the attack of Satan. Some Christians find it difficult to live for God because they are oppressed by sin and therefore become slaves of sin. Paul writes, “When you were slaves to sin, you were free from the control of righteousness” (Rom 6:20 NIV). Jesus replied, “Verily, verily I tell you, everyone who sins is a slave to sin” (John 8:34 NIV).

Examining The Secondary Sources

The Oppressed

Primarily, in the books of Zech 7:10 and Prov 22:22–23, God had spoken against injustice to protect widows, orphans, and foreigners in the land of Israel during biblical time; contemporarily, history will continue to repeat itself concerning human problems with respect to marginalization of social groupings, racism, sectionalism, sexism, and nepotism. Oppression comes in variations of forms. There are social, emotional, economical, political, cognitive, and physical oppression of humanity. For exemplifications, the denial of equal status of employment during interview as the result of colors, accentuation of languages based on the countries one comes from, nationality, geographical origin, religious affiliations, belief systems, and educational backgrounds are forms of oppressions when they are denied. God is totally against oppression; therefore, he anointed Jesus of Nazareth to fight against spiritual oppressions (demons) that give birth to the physical ones. In this light, Christians are commanded to pray for those in authority so that humanity may have peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness (1 Tim 2:2). Even the United States, that is regarded to be the country of equality and justice, is not freed from the above mentioned oppressions. These oppressions are seen in employment situations, the court systems, and church organizations across the United States. Moody comments that black are singled out with respect to marginalization and termed as scapegoat community in the United States.[19] If this is true; then, the United States, that is considered to be a country of equality and justice, needs to revisit its democratic system and Christian values. Liberation theology emerged as the result of the religious community’s failure to practice biblical theology; instead, dogmatic theology took preference over the truth of the Bible; as the result, others such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli decided to revolt against Roman Catholicism. This marked the birth of proliferation of churches and renaissance in Church history. During this time, three of the members of the Ana-Baptist took a radical position to fight against dogmatic theology; consequently, many were brutally killed by the Catholics, the Lutherans, and the Zwingli’s movement in the name of religion.[20] This was a religious and diabolic oppression in which thousands of the Ana-Baptist members who practiced re-baptism and refused to follow dogmatic theology were massacred. In their struggle to be liberated, they died as martyrs. Penumaka support this explanation that Liberation and contextual theologies emerged as a response to the inappropriateness of the dominant religious orthodoxy and lacuna created and perpetuated by orthopraxis.[21]. Pinker concludes that oppressed people, who for no fault on their part are subsequently punished and they cry and will need comforters.[22]

            In the state of oppression, where one has been oppressed, the person oppressed will eventually suffer oppression. The oppressed individual is crushed or broken. Jesus was anointed to heal the oppressed from spiritual domination and to give power to the oppressed to subdue his oppressor, the devil. While humanity seeks to be delivered from social and political oppressions, Jesus had defeated the power behind these oppressive agencies in this world. There is no freedom from social and political oppression if no spiritual ones have been attained in the spirit; therefore, it is the invisible that gives birth to the visible. This explains the complexity of the spiritual world and its characteristics (Eph 6:10–12).

Ecclesiology In Mission

In The Context Of Luke 4:18

Theological Implications

Contextually, Luke scribed the book of Luke to Theophillus and to those whom the book would be disseminated in order to proclaim and to elucidate to his audiences how church ministry functions in delivering didactic and holistic services and the demonstration of God’s power in this generation depend on the teaching of Jesus Christ. Inspired by the Holy Spirit, Luke records Isa 61:1–2 to confirm the prophecy spoken by the prophet Isaiah and secondly to publically declare the mission of Jesus Christ to the Jewish audiences and their contemporaries. Jesus is handled the scroll of Isaiah and he began to read his mission: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me …” (Luke 4:18 NIV). Jesus declares his mission and the categories of humanity he has been sent to. He classifies them as the poor, the broken hearted, the captives, the blind, and the oppressed. Similarly, the church’s mission to the world is to deliver services to these groups of people. God has anointed the church to teach, to preach, to deliver, and to heal. The church will accomplish this by being obedient to the Great Commission recorded in Matt 28:16–28. The church should go, make disciples of all nations, and baptize and teach them to obey everything according to scriptures. Obedience is the key to do what Jesus did during his earthly ministry. Jesus has promised the church to do greater works than what he accomplished during his ministry by the reason of the anointing (John 14:12). The mission of the Church on planet earth is to declare the praises and the glory of God’s kingdom to the unbelieving generations through the demonstration of the power of God.

Chapter 2 Summary

The historical context of the gospel of Luke has been explained in the context of key words and comparisons taking into account the mission of Jesus Christ and the church. Primarily,Jesus was anointed by God the Father to deliver both didactic and holistic services to humanity. In his endeavor to accomplish this, he had to demonstrate this by various manifestations of the Spirit’s power in order to teach, to preach, to deliver, and to heal. In the similar token, Jesus has empowered the church by the reason of the anointing to promulgate the gospel message via the teaching, preaching, deliverance, and the healing ministries.


[1]Kenneth Barker, ed, The New International Version Study Bible (Grand Rapids: Michigan), 1985, 1532.

[2]Ibid., 1532.

[3]Ibid., 1532.

[4]James Strong, Strong’s Concordance, n.p. [Cited 16 January 2017]. Online: http://biblehub.com/greek/strongs_5548.htm.

[5]Joseph H. Thayer, Thayer’s Greek Lexicon (Electronic Database: Bible Soft, Inc), 2002, 2003, 2011, n.p. [cited 16 January 2017]. Online: http://www.biblehub.com/greek/strongs_5548.htm.

[6]Andrea Rhodes, “10 Bible Verses about Poverty and Justice,”n.p. [Cited 16 January 2017]. Online: http://www.tedbiblesocieties.org/10-bible-verses-about-poverty-and-justice.

[7]William E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: Hendrickson), 1952, 1940.

[8]Matthew J. Tuininga, “Good News for the Poor: An Analysis of Calvin’s Concept of Poor Relief and the Diaconate in Light of His Two Kingdoms Paradigm,”CTJ 49, No 2 (2014): 221–247.

[9]Kristopher Norris and Speers Samuel Hand, “The Hope of the Poor: Ecclesial Practices of Politics, Hope, and Transformation,”PRS 43, No. 1 (2016): 103–114.

[10]Ignatius Swart, “Relating to the Poor: Conceptualizations of Diaconal Practice Considered through the Lens of Human Dignity,”D 7, No. 1 (2016): 3–26.

[11]David Noel Power, “Justification, Worship, and Poor Relief in the Sixteenth Century: A Historical Concern of Contemporary Interest,” W 89, No. 2 (2015): 124–146.

[12]Margaret R. Miles, “Treasure in Heaven: The Holy Poor in Early Christianity,”TCC 133, No. 16 (2016): 36–38.

[13]Ibid., 73–757.

[14]Ibid., 732.

[15]Ronald David, “The Care of a Person with a Diseased and Broken Heart,” JPCC 62, No. 4 (2008): 36–366.

[16]“Irish Political Prisoner Culture, 1916­1923,”CC 64, No. 1 (2014): 90–106.

[17]Peter Rhebergen,  “Each New Day a Miracle: Physical Blindness Versus Spiritual Blindness,”n.p. [Cited 20 April 1997]. Online: http://www.eachnewday.com/BibleStudies/physial_blindness.

[18]Everett Falcon Harrison, “The Son of God among the Sons of Men and the Man Born Blind,”BS 104, No. 413 (1947): 4–58.

[19] Katharine Sarah Moody, “Neither Male Nor Female, Christian Nor Non-Christian, Oppressor Nor Oppressed: Pyrotheology’s Pauline Politics of Identity,”MB 57, No 4 (2016): 31–404.

[20]John Horsch, “Persecution of the Anabaptists,”Mennonites in Europe, n.p. [Cited 22 February 2017]. Online: https://www.gracegems.org/C/persecution_of_the_anabaptists.htm.

[21]Moses Penumaka, “The Suffering Reality of the Oppressed in God—the World’s Future and Its Implications for Dalit Theology,” CTM 39, No 5 (2012): 415–424.