Literature Review: The Anointing


            This review of literature sets the stage in synthesizing twenty documentations on the pedagogy or the doctrine of the anointing including articles, books, websites, dictionaries, commentaries, and biblical references and thereby analyzes each with respect to evaluations and critique on the doctrine of the anointing.

            The review gives the historical origin of the anointing oil and presents its usage in the context of agriculture, cosmetic, medicinal, and ritual as it pertains to primitive men based on climate change. It gives the delineation of the anointing in the contextualization of materialism and spiritualism while presenting the purposes of the anointing oil in the inaugural ceremonies of the Jewish kings, priests, and prophets. It presents articles, books, and commentaries which deal with the anointing oil in the healing ministry of Jesus and the church. It makes a connection between the anointing oil and the Holy Spirit in the ministries of deliverance and healing. It treats articles which talk about the misconceptions concerning the anointing oil and the anointing of the Holy Spirit and the controversy centering on the doctrine of impartation, anointing, and manifestation in the Pentecostal-Charismatic circle and the reaction of the non-Pentecostal-Charismatic group who advocate for sound biblical doctrine and consequently attack the alleged heresy presenting biblical passages on the anointing to correct the hermeneutical errors made in sermons, books, and articles preached and written by some members of the Pentecostal-Charismatic circle. It presents a segment of documentations including articles and commentaries which talks about the onset and the significance of ordination as originated with God according to Deuteronomy and Numbers account and link the practice in the New Testament to be biblical and necessary for effectiveness and efficiency in the spiritual ministries in the New Testament church. The second section of the review gives the analysis, evaluation, and critique.


The thesis entitled, “The Anointing: A credible Spiritual Resource for Spiritual Empowerment in the Christian Ministry Benefiting Ministers, Congregants, and the world at Large and Can It Be Imparted? calls for a literature review as to find out what preliminary information concerning what other resources had previously said about this topic currently being researched; meanwhile, I anticipate synthesizing sources on this subject to enable me get the go-on start on this project. The following sources are organized based on the order of importance as outlined on the page. According to “Smith’s Bible dictionary, anointing is defined as in scripture as either material as oil or spiritual with the Holy Spirit[1]. The dictionary of Smith outlines five uses or purposes of the anointing as proven in scriptures. Primarily, the anointing ordinarily is used when a body or head has been anointed with oil which has been a common practice with the Jews and other Oriental nations. In the book of Ruth reads, “Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make no thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking (Ruth 3:3KJV)[2]. In the book of Micah it states that thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, but shalt not drink wine (Mic 6:15KJV).[3] Anointing the head with oil or ointment indicated a mark of respect or reverence sometimes rendered by a host to his guests. In the book of Luke it states “My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment (Luke 7:46 KJV).[4] The Psalmist testifies, “Thou prepareth a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointed my head with oil; my cup runneth over (Ps 23:5KJV).[5]

            Another use of the anointing was official in the case of the inauguration of each of the typical offices of the Jewish commonwealth. Prophets were occasionally anointed to their offices and were eventually nomenclature as messiahs or the anointed. And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel: and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room (I Kgs 19:16KJV).[6] Saying, touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm (I Chr 16:22KJV).[7] Saying, touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm (Ps 105:15KJV).[8]

            In the Jewish commonwealth, priests at the primary institution of the Leviticus priesthood were officially anointed to serve in their offices.[9] And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations (Exod40:15KJV).[10] In this situation, Aaron and his children were divinely set apart and inaugurated to serve as priests in the temple in order to offer sacrifices on behalf of the children of Israel. In the book of Numbers as recorded, “Those were the names of Aaron’s sons, the anointed priests, who were ordained to serve as priests, Nadab and Abihu, however, fell dead before the Lord when they made an offering with unauthorized fire before him in the Desert of Sinai. They had no sons; so only Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests during the lifetime of their father Aaron (Num 3:3-4NIV).[11] As recorded in this scripture, two of the sons of Aaron died as the result of unauthorized sacrifice before the Lord; consequently, among the children, only two left to serve as priests during the lifetime of their father Aaron. It indicates that the priesthood was ordained by God through the use of the anointing oil; therefore, the oil plays significant role in the inaugural ceremony performed during the era of the Leviticus priesthood designation. God uses the oil as medium to heal, deliver, bless, set apart, recognize divine office, approve, protect and many more. This is the reason the anointing of God is delineated as being associated with the oil, which is material and the Holy Spirit, which is spiritual.

            On the other hand, the anointing ceremony appears to have been especially reserved for the high priest as recorded in the following texts. “Aaron’s sacred garments will belong to his descendants so that they can be anointed and ordained in them. The son who succeeds him as priest and comes to the Tent of Meeting to minister in the Holy Place is to wear them seven days (Exod 29:29-30NIV).[12] “The priest who is anointed and ordained to succeed his father as high priest is to make atonement. He is to put on the sacred linen garments and make atonement for the Most Holy Place, for the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and for the priests and all the people of the community (Lev16:32-33NIV).[13]” “If the anointed priest sins, bringing guilt on the people, he must bring to the Lord a young bull without defect as a sin offering for the sin he has committed (Lev 4:3NIV).”[14] The high priest was commended to offer sin offering after having been found guilty of breaking God’s law. This was done to bring peaceful co-existence between God and the priesthood ministry.

            In the Jewish commonwealth, the king was set apart to serve as the representative of God to the people of Israel. The governmental system which existed at the time was called theocracy. God was ruling from heaven through the human king; as the result, the anointing was the principal and divinely appointed ceremony in the inauguration of the Jewish Kings. The following scriptural references indicate the ceremony: “About this time tomorrow I will send you a man from the land of Benjamin. Anoint him leader over my people Israel; he will deliver my people from the hand of the Philistines. I have looked upon my people, for their cry has reached me (I Sam 9:16NIV).”[15] “Then Samuel took a flask of oil and poured it on Saul’s head and kissed him, saying, “Has not the Lord anointed you leader over his inheritance (I Sam 10:1NIV)”?[16] “There have Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel. Blow the trumpet and shout, “Long live King Solomon! (I Kgs 1:34NIV)”[17] “Zadok the priest took the horn of oil from the sacred tent and anointed Solomon. Then they sounded the trumpet and all the people shouted, “Long live King Solomon (I Kgs 1:39NIV)!”[18] In the following experiences relative to the anointing ceremony and what happened when the king was anointed, he was divinely approved and empowered to carry out the mandate of Jehovah since he served as the divine representative from heaven to the people he led. When Saul was anointed, the Spirit of the Lord came upon him in power to enable him defeat the enemies of God’s people. It is also recorded when King Saul sinned against God by not carrying out the mandate as he was instructed, God rejected him and asked Samuel to anointed David in his place of kingship. After David was anointed, the Spirit of Lord left Saul and he transferred to David. The bible declares that David was changed into a different man (I Sam10:6)[19].”So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers, and from that day on the Spirit of the Lord came upon David in power. Samuel then went to Ramah (I Sam16:13NIV”[20] “Now the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord tormented him (I Sam 16:14NIV)”[21] After the anointing of David, he was changed into a different man and he grew in the power of the Spirit to enable him defeat Goliath in battle (I Sam 17:50)[22]. The anointing of God transferred to an individual through the application of oil as seen in these scriptures brings God’s presence in the life of the individual through the working of the Holy Spirit to lead, fight battles, heal, deliver, bless, overcome the attacks of the devil etc. The presence of the Holy Spirit in the life of an individual is not only for empowerment, but it is also for distinction in leadership, career, in the place of employment, in places one does not desire to be such as in prison, dungeon etc. The anointing of God brings favor and locates the anointed one to make him known to the world. Joseph had favor with his master Potiphar; unfortunately, he was thrown into prison after Potiphar’s wife lied on him for raping her because Joseph refused to sleep with her sexually (Gen 39:1-23).[23] By the reason of the anointing on Joseph, he was divinely released from prison and he became the Prime Minister of Egypt after having interpreted the King’s dream (Gen 41:37-44).[24] God’s anointing is for spiritual empowerment and distinction.

            This ceremony as a rite was sometimes performed more than once. David was anointed thrice.[25] In the Jewish commonwealth not only were the three individuals (prophets, priests, and kings) anointed, but also inanimate objects were also anointed with oil to be set apart for religious service. Jacob anointed a pillar at Bethel. “I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed a pillar and where you made a vow to me. Now leave this land at once and go back to your native land (Gen 31:13NIV)”[26] “Then use it to anoint the Tent of Meeting the ark of the Testimony, the table and all its articles, the lamp stand and its accessories, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt offering and all its utensils, and the basin with its stand (Exod 30:26-28NIV)[27]

            The use of the anointing oil is also being prescribed to the New Testament church ministry by Saint James purposely used for the recovery of the sick. “Is any sick among you? Let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: and prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he hath committed sins, they shall be forgiven him (Jas 5:14-15KJV)”[28] “And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them (Mark 6:13KJV)”[29] Here we see that the anointing is also being used for ecclesiastical reason to minister healing to the sick. In Catholicism, the anointing in James is being regarded as the extreme unction considered to be the sacrament given to the church for healing the sick or anointing the sick that are on their deathbeds. There are hermeneutical ambiguities presented by biblical interpreters when it comes to interpreting this scripture based on the theological orientation, denominational background, and biblical scholarship. Some said the anointing is for those who are dying and will not recover while some said this anointing is purposely recommended to heal the sick. There are different exegetical explanations and applications concerning this scripture which shall be explored in this thesis paper later. Another system of anointing described in the Old Testament is ascribed to a Deliverer who has been promised under the tile of the Messiah or the Anointed One as proven or stated in these scriptural verses. “The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying, let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us (Ps 2:2-3KJV)”[30] “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come and shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined (Dan 9:25-26KJV)”[31] This anointing designation concerning the Messiah was revealed to Daniel as a prophet; therefore, the anointing or the anointing of the Messiah was prophetic. Indeed everything Daniel saw in his vision concerning the Messiah or the Anointed One has been fulfilled in scripture when Jesus was handled to be crucified based on God’s providence and allowance to bring the mission of Jesus Christ into consummation (died to save humanity).The prophet Isaiah prophesied about the Messiah or the Anointed One as the Spirit of Christ spoke through the prophet. “The Spirit of the sovereign Lord is on me, because the Lord has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn, and provide for those who grieve in Zion- to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair (Isa 61:1-3NIV)”[32] The prophecy was fulfilled when Jesus entered the temple and he was handled the scroll of Isaiah to read as recorded in the gospel of St. Luke. “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor. Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the Synagogue were fastened on him, and he began by saying to them, “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing (Luke 4:18-21NIV).”[33] In these scriptures, Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah, or Christ or the Anointed One of the Old Testament prophetic fulfillment. “The first thing Andrew did was to find his brother Simon and tell him, “We have found the Messiah” (this is, the Christ) (John 1:41 NIV).[34] “Yet Saul grew more and more powerful and baffled the Jews living in Damascus by proving that Jesus is the Christ (Acts 9:22 NIV.”[35] “As his custom was, Paul went into the Synagogue, and on three Sabbath days he reasoned with them from the scriptures, explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead. “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you as the Christ, he said (Acts 17:2-3 NIV).”[36] “For he vigorously refuted the Jews in public debate, proving from the scriptures that Jesus was the Christ (Acts 18:28 NIV).”[37] The historical fact of being anointed with the Holy Spirit is recorded in these scriptures. “Then John gave this testimony: “I saw the Spirit come down from heaven as a dove and remain on him. I would not have known him, except that the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, the man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit. I have seen and I testify that this is the Son of God (John 1:32-34 NIV).”[38] “How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power, and how he went around doing good and healing all who were under the power of the devil, because God was with him (Acts 10:38 NIV).”[39]In these verses, the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual with the Holy Spirit while at the same time; God has anointed him to be prophet, priest, and king.

            The fifth area that he dictionary of the article points out concerning the anointing is that it categorizes the anointing as the spiritual anointing with the Holy Spirit that is conferred also upon Christians by God. In II Corinthians read as the following, “Now it is God who makes both us and you stand firm in Christ. He anointed us, set his seal of ownership on us, and put his Spirit in our hearts as a deposit, guaranteeing what is to come (II Cor 1:21-22 NIV).”[40] This anointing given to Christians by God serves as the expression of the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit which rendered them to be priests and kings unto God.[41] According to the “Jewish Encyclopedia written by Eager, the ancient Hebrews made a distinction with anointing oil in private use in making one’s toilet (cukh) and the anointing oil as a religious rite (mashach). Primarily, it was ordinarily used as native olive oil mixed with perfumes for toilet purposes.[42] The olive oil used as anointing oil in Palestine was used to protect the skin from cold as the result of its heat capability to sooth the body (Ruth 3:3)[43]. It was applied freely to expose part of the body especially the face (Ps 104:15).[44] The practice was in fashion before King David era and its practices may be found throughout the Old Testament era (Deut 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 12:20; 14:2; 2 Chr 28:15;Ezek 16:9; Mic 6:16; Dan 10:3).[45] In the New Testament, it seems to have been part of the daily toilet throughout the East (Matt 6:17).[46] Whenever people abstain from such practice of anointing, it means the individuals were mourning (2 Sam 14:2) and resuming it meant the mourning was over or has ended (Matt 6:17; 2 Sam 12:20; 14:2; Dan 10:3; Judith 10:3).[47] After mourning before using the anointing oil, it was accompanied by the bath (Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 12:20; Ezek 16:9; Susanna 17).[48] The practice of the anointing oil usage was customary part for preparing for a feast (Eccl 9:8; Ps 23:5)[49] and the manner in which a guest was giving honor was to anoint his head with oil (Ps 23:5;Luke 7:46).[50] Another way of honor for the guest was to anoint his feet (Luke 7:38)[51] and the oil in the New Testament is being used for medicinal purposes for healing of the sick individual (Jas 5:14).[52] There were some of the ordinary uses of the anointing oil.

            Another use of the anointing oil according to the literature was religious. The anointing oil as the religious rite was practiced throughout the ancient East in application both to persons and things.[53] The practice of the anointing was observed in Canaan long before the Hebrew conquest (Stade’s Zeutschrift, XVIII, 50) and Weinel holds that oil was generally used in Israel as an agricultural custom borrowed from the Canaanites; therefore, the anointing with sacred oil was an outgrowth from its regular use for toilet purposes. According to sources, the cukh or use of the oil for toilet purposes had an agricultural and secular origin and the use of oil for sacred purposes, mashach, had a nomadic and sacrificial origin (Religion of the Semites, 2nd ed., 233, 383; compare Wellhausen, Reste des arabischen Heidenthums, 2nd ed., 125).[54] Robertson Smith finds the origin of the sacred anointing in the very ancient custom of smearing the sacred fat on the altar (matstsebhah), and claims, rightly it would seem, that from the first there was a distinct and consistent usage, distinguishing the two terms above.[55] The word mashach is a Hebrew word borne out of the Arabic meaning “to daub” or “smear.”It is used of painting a ceiling in Jeremiah 22:14 and the anointing of shield in Isaiah 21:5. It is consistently applicable to sacred furniture contemporary to the altar in Exodus 29:36 and Daniel 9:24 and to the sacred pillar in Genesis 31:13. The most significant uses of mashach are found not to the application to things, but to certain sacred persons. The oldest and most sacred person for the anointing was the king whom oil was being poured upon his head at his inauguration or coronation. This religious ceremony was not held in Israel only for the king, but it was also held in Egypt and elsewhere (Judg 9:8, 15; 1 Sam 9:16; 10:1; 2 Sam 19:10; 1 Kgs 1:39, 45; 2 Kgs 9:3, 6; 11:12).[56] This anointing was exclusively reserved for the king in earliest period that accounts for the fact the Lord’s anointed became the synonym for the king (1 Sam 12:3, 5; 26:11; 2 Sam 1:14; Ps 20:6).[57] The practice of the anointing of the king is being thought by some that the practice originated in Egypt and known to have been observed as a rite in Canaan at a very early day. Example, Tell el-Amarna Letters 37 records the anointing of a king.[58] Among the Hebrews it was believed that it did not only transfer to the anointed individual something of holiness and virtue of the deity in whose name and representative the rite was performed, but it imparted a special endowment of the Spirit of Yahweh (1 Sam 16:13; Isa 61:1).[59] The reverence for the king as a sacred personage, “the anointed” (Hebrew, meshiah YHWH), is being passed into our language through the Greek Christos as “Christ.” In the Priestly Code, the high priest was regarded of being anointed (Exod 29:7; Lev 4:3; 8:12).[60] Elijah was commended to anoint Elisha as a prophet (Kgs 19:16).[61]

            This article concludes that king, priest, and prophet were anointed in their various offices to serve their people. This article, “Anointing in the Old Testament” gives the historical origin of the use of the anointing oil and gives the various purposes of the use of the anointing oil, the persons whom the oil was or is used on and the rationale of the oil usage on such individuals. Peifer writes: The origin of the practice of anointing is hidden in the dawn of history. It seems to have been known among all ancient peoples, but was particularly common in the Near East, which has supplied us with our most abundant documentation on the history of ancient man. The hot, dry climate of the region contributed to its extensive use. Primitive man used the fat substances of animal flesh to mitigate the effects of the excessive heat upon his skin, and later substituted vegetable preparations, particularly the oil of the olive(578 WORSHI P xxx v : i x)[62]

            The use of the anointing oil extensively was the result of the effect of climate change on primitive men to sooth the skin due to hot and dry climatic condition. Not only did primitive men use olive oil, but they also used fat substances of animal flesh to stop the effect of excessive heat on their skins. Looking at the practices of primitive men on the use of anointing oil, it can be inferred that biblical practices might have been borrowed from this end because the Near Eastern people and biblical people shared the same cultural and cognitive environment. The tendency for cultural practices to exist and to infuse in such environment was inevitable due to the co-existence of biblical people with the Near East populations. The anointing oil was utilized as the result of cosmetic purpose because oil is a poor conductor of heat; it protects the skin against sun’s rays and prevents excessive perspiration by closing the pores. Peifer writes: It soothes the pain of burnt and cracked skin and produces a sense of well-being. It was thought to enhance the beauty of the countenance and, when mixed with sweet-smelling perfumes, constituted the principal cosmetic product of the ancient world. In this respect, the Israelites conformed to the general practice of their cultural milieu. We find David washing and anointing himself at the unsuccessful conclusion of the fast which he undertook to implore the life of his infant son (2 Sam 12:20). Ruth beautifies herself with oil to attract the attentions of Booz (Ruth 3:3), and Judith in preparation for her encounter with Holofernes (Judith 10:2-3).[63] The use of the anointing oil was a practice culturally borrowed from the Near Eastern populations as biblical priests lived and shared cultural and cognitive environment. Cultural assimilation can easily occurred when two groups of people live together from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. From studies, it is obvious that such episode occurred as the result of the people of God living with the pagan’s world. It should be understood that anything sound which comes from God, the devil can also produce counterfeit for reality. The use of the anointing oil was for comfort and luxury for guests who arrive to pay a visit to their neighbors and the stopping of the use of the anointing oil was considered self-punishment. Peifer comments that Guests are made comfortable in the same way (Ps 22:5), and the failure of Simon the Pharisee to offer this honor to Jesus was considered a distinct lack of etiquette (Luke 7:46). So closely was anointing connected with comfort and luxury that its omission was considered an act of penance? The Essences, Josephus tells us, never used it (Wars II, 8); the Pharisees prescribed its omission on days of fasting (Matt 6:16-17).[64] The second rationale the anointing oil was used was for medicinal or curative purposes. The use of it was not basically based on the properties of the oil to heal, but it sometimes comprised of religious and magical basis. Its origin of practice resulted from the ancients’ discovery that oil possessed curative powers for types of sickness, particularly ailments of the skin. Using it would refresh and comfort the patient and medical prescriptions revealed both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia mentioned anointing with oil as a popular remedy for sickness. Peifer writes: Medical prescriptions discovered both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia frequently mention anointing with oil as a popular remedy for sickness. Here again we find Israel living in the same cultural pattern as her neighbors. The younger Tobia anoints his father’s eyes with the gall of a fish to restore his sight (Tob 11:8). Isaiah refers to Israel as a sick man, covered with wounds which have not been soothed of with oil (Isa 1:6). This was the first thing which the Good Samaritan did to the wounded traveler (Luke 10:34), and the method HOL Y SCRIPTUR E 57 9 employed by the apostles to cure the sick on their missionary journey (Mark 6:13). In the new dispensation it would be raised to the dignity of a sacrament (Jas 5:14).[65] The third use of the anointing oil according to this article is that it was used for ritual purpose. The anointing oil was used on religious vessels, altars, and significantly, the king, the priest, and prophet were anointed with oil to set them apart for the use of Jehovah and the gods. Both pagans and biblical people used the anointing oil in their religious rites. It was believed that using the anointing oil could bring about some mystical or magical powers to the persons or things that have been anointed. Godly king, priest, and prophet of Jehovah received supernatural endowment of power when they were anointed and set apart for the use of God. Peifer writes: Now such a setting apart of a person or thing for the exclusive use of the gods constitutes a consecration. Since consecrated persons or things are considered holy, it was easy enough to take a further step and conclude that it was the anointing which had conferred holiness. But there is another and more important element, which originally goes back to the sphere of magic. We have seen that animal fat was the earliest substance used for anointing. The mystery of life fascinated the ancients that they considered any living matter to contain a divine power capable of transferring its vital energies to others. This could be done by eating the flesh and blood of an animal, whence originated the sacred banquet. But the transfer of divine life could also be accomplished by the external application of animal fat, which was believed to contain the divine power in the same way as the blood. Therefore the person or thing anointed was thought to have received a supernatural power and a special divine status; hence the 580 WORSHI P xxxv: i x was sanctified.[66] This article also names and discusses the three officials anointed under the Jewish commonwealth as commended by Jehovah, the Creator of the heaven and the earth. While this was also biblical practice, it also has its origin among the Assyrians, the Babylonians and Egyptians as well as the Hittites and the Canaanites. Among the Hittites and the Canaanites, the rite was used as the coronation of a king by anointing. Peifer writes: Nevertheless the king was the religious head of his people and the principal priest of the realm and, according to the concept explained above, the rite of anointing was believed to confer this sacred status upon him. In Israel, too, it was the ceremony of anointing which introduced the new king to his royal functions. We encounter it as early as the book of Judges. Though it is not certain that Abimelech was actually anointed, the fable which Joatham opposed to his assumption of power (Judg 9:8) shows that this rite, current among the surrounding Canaanites, was accepted as a means of royal investiture. Later, with the establishment of the kingdom under Saul, anointing became a regular feature of the coronation ceremony. Yahweh Himself commanded Samuel to anoint Saul as king of Israel (1 Sam 9:16). Upon the latter’s defection, the prophet was ordered once more to fill his vial with oil and proceed to the house of Jesse the Bethlehemite, where he privately anointed David (1 Sam 16:1-13). Another tradition, which knew nothing of this secret ceremony, tells us that David was anointed when he began to reign in Hebron (2 Sam 2:4) and again when he gained mastery over the entire kingdom (2 Sam 5:3). Absalom, too, was anointed by his followers at the outset of his abortive rebellion (2 Sam 19:10) and Solomon was thus introduced to the succession (3 Kgs 1:39). In the northern kingdom we hear of the anointing of Jehu (4 Kgs HOL Y SCRIPTUR E 58 1 9:6); in the southern kingdom Joas and Joachaz received the sacred unction (4 Kgs 11:12; 23:30).[67] In Israel, the king was anointed to serve as the representative of God from heaven to the people he led. It was a ceremony performed to set apart the king and empower him for battle and leadership in Israel. Not only was the king anointed, but also the priest also was anointed to serve in the temple to offer blood sacrifices to God on behave of the children of Israel. This rite was performed to dedicate or consecrate the priest. Peifer writes: The Pentateuch gives detailed regulations for the investiture of the high priest. After a ritual bath and the imposition of the sacred vestments, Aaron is to have the oil of anointing poured over his head. He is repeatedly designated as “the anointed priest,” and it is clear that this prerogative distinguished him from the other members of the Leviticus hierarchy. Other texts, however, speak of an anointing conferred upon all the priests. Lev 8:30 specifies that this was done by aspersion, while the pouring of the oil upon the head was reserved to the high priest alone. Modern commentators, however, generally hold that only the high priest was actually anointed.[68]. Finally, the prophet was also anointed to serve in the prophetic office by the designated individual as God appointed. Few passages in the Old Testament refer indistinctly to an anointing of prophets. Elias is commanded to anointed Hazel as king of Syria, Jehu as king of Israel, and Elisae as prophet by God; however, there is no assertion of fulfillment of this command. The great prophet of the third part of Isaiah likewise speaks of anointing: “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, for the Lord has anointed me.”[69] According to this article, the anointing of these individuals was carried out for two reasons: Primarily, the ceremony was performed in order to consecrate the individual to Yahweh. Among the ancients, when the anointing was carried out on a subject, it was believed certain supernatural characteristics were conferred upon the individual who has been anointed. After the ceremony has been performed in the context of Israel’s inauguration of kings, priests, and prophets, the sacred oil of anointing which belonged in a special manner to Yahweh, sanctified all whom it touched. This was the religious significance imparted by the ceremony. The individual was set apart from profanity and empowered to do the work of the God as set in the kingly, priestly, and prophetic codes. Peifer writes: We have seen above that anointing among the ancients was believed to confer certain supernatural qualities upon the subject. Precisely what did the Israelites believe to be its effects? Since both the priestly anointing and the figurative prophetic anointing are derived from the royal investiture, it is to the latter that we must look for an indication of its religious significance. The sacred oil of anointing, which belonged in a special manner to Yahweh, sanctified all whom it touched, setting them apart for the service of God and separating them from profane things.[70]

            The second reason for the anointing of these officials was for divine election and appointment. As Israel was chosen by Yahweh out of all other nations; therefore, he singled out certain individuals to rule his people. The anointing was the medium of divine election made known as the king became the choice of Yahweh Himself. Peifer concludes: The king, therefore, held a special place in God’s plan for His people. He is often qualified with the title “leader,” a term which seems originally to have meant “prince” and has a religious significance, implying as it does the divine election. The anointing also made him to be the “son” of Yahweh. One of the royal psalms juxtaposes the two ideas: “I, indeed, have anointed my king on Sion, My holy hill . . . thou art my son; this day have I begotten thee” (Ps 2:6-7). So evident was it that the anointing manifested the divine election that it became a necessary prerequisite for holding the royal power.[71] The article “The sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick” discusses the hermeneutical ambiguity presenting a misconception about the theological understanding of the anointing oil mentioned in James 5:14. In the Middle Ages, the sacrament became for anointing those on their deathbeds instead of anointing the sick for restoration healing. As time went by, the church has returned to a more biblical understanding of this sacrament bringing Christ’s ongoing healing power to the sick person. Furiol writes: In the Middle Ages the sacrament became, for all practical purposes, the anointing of those on their deathbeds. It was not administered unless the person was actually dying. There are similar practices in the Anglican and Eastern Orthodox churches. The oil used is consecrated each year by the bishop on Holy Thursday and then distributed to the parishes of the diocese. The anointing is often accompanied by the laying on of hands and a prayer for the recovery of the sick. The rite is to be understood within the larger concept of the Church’s ministry of healing, itself closely connected, in the NT, with the forgiveness of sins. The renewed interest in recent years in the ministry of healing, which goes with the modern understanding of the human being as a psychosomatic unity, has led to a corresponding renewal of interest in the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick. Back to the Sources Today the Church has returned to a more biblical understanding of this sacrament, which is that of bringing Christ’s ongoing healing power to the sick. It is the sacrament of the sick rather than of the dying. As such, it is aimed at restoring the sick person to physical, mental and spiritual health, including the forgiveness of sins, because of Christ’s power present in the sacrament. Christ strengthens the faithful who, in this sacrament, turn to him in their hour of illness and need. They become a sacramental sign to the whole community of Christ’s enduring presence in the community.[72] The anointing with oil as previously practiced in the Near Eastern region of the world and with biblical people has been commended in James 5:14-15 to be practiced in the era of the New Testament to prove and to indicate the significance of the use of the oil on the sick to bring about Christ healing power. What makes oil significance in bringing the presence of the supernatural or the divine? As previously studied in previous literatures, oil has curative power secularly or bio-chemically to heal wounds or diseases of the skin or it has the capability to sooth the skin as the result of its insulator nature or being a poor conductor of heat during dry or hot climatic condition. Oil does not only have curative power to heal, but it also has cosmetic power to beautify the carrier by virtue of appearance and aromatic nature of the carrier. For this reason, primitive men used it to serve their gods and to perform magical acts; in the same token, biblical people used it to empower and to set apart their priests, kings, and prophets. There is a mystery which lies behind the oil. The oil is symbolic of the anointing or the Holy Spirit. God uses the oil to bless people in various dimensions. The article, Anointing of the Sick in the Church of England” clarifies and corrects the misconception surrounding the use of the anointing oil. In the Bishop’s book of England, James 5:14-15 was understood wrongly as the sacrament designated for dying patients; therefore, the anointing was typically administered to people who were on their deathbeds. It was never administered to the sick for healing; until, a correction was made to term it as the extreme auction for restorative healing for the sick person. Charles writes: In a concluding pastoral admonition the Bishops’ Book spoke out forcefully against the abuse of delaying extreme unction until a single administration at the time of death. Henry Vili, a talented theologian, took it upon himself to revise the Bishops’ Book. The result was the King’s Book, The Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man, issued in 1543. The treatment of extreme unction was basically a shortened and condensed version of that in the Bishops’ Book. According to the teaching of St. James and the use of the sacrament in “the catholic church of Christ,” unction has been ordained for a sick man with two ends in view: that he “might be relieved of his bodily disease, and also attain pardon and remission of his sins.”3 The King’s Book likewise encouraged the administration of unction at the entry of sickness and not in extremis. Both the Bishops’ Book of 1537 and the King’s Book of 1543 thus understood extreme unction to be a sacrament not for the dying but for the sick, ordained for the recovery of health of both body and soul, a sacrament of healing.[73] The article, “Anointing for Healing” also summarizes the wrong theological and practical application of James 5:14-15 concerning the sacrament for the extreme unction for healing. The sacrament was not administered to the sick for restoration; instead, it was offered to the sick that were dying. Since the anointing of the sick did not follow physical healing as the result of the church weaknesses in faith and the power of God to heal, the teaching of James regarding the use of the oil to heal the sick was taken out of context hermeneutically, homiletically, and practically applied. Warren writes: There is historical evidence to the effect that the Christian church continued spiritual healing for the first eight centuries at least, and used both laying on of hands and anointing with oil, in the name of Christ. In the ninth century there came a sad chapter in the life of the church, and holy unction began to be regarded as a sacrament to be administered to a dying person, in preparation for death. Spread says that the primary cause for this change was that the faith of the church had become weak. Since physical healing did not always follow anointing, the church yielded to the temptation to change its doctrine rather than strengthen its faith The Council of Florence in 1439 restricted holy unction to dying persons, and the Council of Trent in 1551, although less definite, gave the impression that holy unction was to be administered only as a spiritual preparation for death. This appears to be the origin of extreme unction, which has been practiced for centuries by the Roman Catholic Church.[74]

            The article, “Anointing for Healing” also explains the significance of the oil in the ministry of Jesus as he instructed his disciples to cast out unclean spirits and to heal the sick. His disciples obeyed as he sent them out. Warren writes: Healing was a significant part of the ministry of Jesus. When he taught his disciples to carry on his work he included training for healing, as is shown by the recorded Word. “And he appointed twelve to be with him and to be sent out to preach and have authority to cast out demons. And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits to cast them out and to heal every disease and infirmity. Mark says further, “And he called to him the twelve, and began to send them out two by two, and gave them authority over unclean spirits. In verse 13 we hear the result of their mission: “And they cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them. It is clearly evident that anointing with oil was a part of the instructions Christ gave to his disciples when he sent them out to teach and to heal, and that when they returned they reported to the Master that this method had been successful. This training for healing was not confined to the twelve apostles but was soon extended to the seventy.[75]

            According to the above quotation, the use of the oil was instructed by Jesus himself to his disciples to cast out evil spirits and to heal various infirmities. The anointing oil is symbolic of God’s power to beautify, to empower, to set apart for religious services, to consecrate religious vessels, place of worship, altars etc. It has been in use since the origin of primitive men for medicinal, cosmetic, and ritual use purposes. The article, “Anointing for Healing: Critical Analysis of a Brethren Practice” gives summation of the use of the anointing oil during the era of the Old Testament. The anointing oil was used to set apart kings, priests, and prophets to the services of God in the context of the Creator of heaven and earth. Denise states that references to anointing for a variety of purposes abound in both for Old and New Testaments setting apart high priests, investing kings with authority, and even applying oil as a cosmetic all appear to be powerful uses of anointing within the Old Testament.[76] The article, “The Purpose of Anointing the Sick: A Reappraisal” asserts that the sacramental apostolic ministry of healing recorded by the gospel writers did follow the church as the prolongation of Christ’s ministry as he sent his disciples out for mission. During the mission, the disciples healed many that were sick through the anointing of God activated by the symbolic anointing oil. The anointing oil has been used in the Old Testament to activate the inward painting of God in the kings, priests, and the prophets while in the New Testament, all believers inward painting (invisible anointing through the power of the Holy Spirit) is also activated by the oil when it is used through faith. When used through faith deliverance or healing will inevitably occur without pre-condition because God is part of the healing process. Paul writes: The rite of anointing the sick may be regarded as the continuation and sacramental counterpart of the apostolic ministry of healing as recorded by the Synoptic. Actually, the Church’s ministry of healing is the continuation of Christ’s ministry as entrusted to the Twelve. After recording that Jesus went about the towns and villages, “curing every disease and infirmity” | (Mt 9:35), Matthew tells us that Jesus, “having summoned His twelve disciples, gave them power over unclean spirits, to cast them out and to cure every kind of disease and infirmity.” The parallel passages of Mark (6:7) and Luke (9:1) say the same. Mark, however, adds the significant detail that the ministry of healing was accompanied by an anointing with oil: “And going forth they preached that men should repent, and they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many sick people, and healed them[77]

            The manifestation of deliverance and healing in the ministry of Jesus, his disciples, and the church has materialized as the result of the anointing of God demonstrated in these ministries; indeed, the symbolic anointing has been used to bring God’s anointing alive. It is not the oil that heals, but, the oil serves as the medium for God’s transference of power to meet needs of congregants, ministers, and humanity at large.

            The article, “Anointing the Sick with Oil: An Exegetical Study of James 5:14-15 liking the anointing oil to the Holy Spirit as mysteriously being packaged into the bottle. The oil is the Holy Spirit and it cannot be seen as being symbolic. The oil is the Holy Spirit and both are inseparable and this is mystical beyond human comprehension. Ezekiel writes: The anointing oil is no ritual! It is no magic wand! It is not a symbol! It is not a religious rite or doctrine. It is not a chemical product! It is not oil! It is the Spirit of God, mysteriously packaged in a bottle, mysteriously designed to communicate the power of God, bodily. It is the power of God in your hand, in the person of the Holy Spirit— It is the all-purpose-drug for all aliments of life. It is the might of God. No gate can close against it. Every gate lifts up at its appearance… it is what it takes to be absolutely free. It destroys all discomforts of life. It is God’s standard against every invasion of the enemy. It is the carrier of mysterious virtue.[78]

            The anointing oil is symbolic of what God can do through the power of the Holy Spirit. The anointing oil is a medium God uses to empower, set apart, beautify an individual to be recognized by the public, aromatize an individual to receive favor for advancement in life, elect an individual for divine appointment. This is one of the misconceptions or heretical teachings on the use of God’s anointing or the anointing as stated in the above quote. It manifests an idolized theological approach to biblical theology of the anointing and its symbolism. God can use anything to bless, deliver, or heal. God uses water, clay, or anything to accomplish his desire. He is not limited in time, space, and material, but yet separated from the created world. He is God and he cannot be idolized or put into a box based on human perceptions and conceptions. The anointing oil is not the Holy Spirit neither is the Holy Spirit the anointing oil. This is a heresy and it should be rejected. The article, “Miracle narratives in the Acts of the Apostles” confirms that Jesus indeed empowered his disciples through the person of the Holy Spirit in their lives and ministries. Healing, miracles, signs, and wonders accompanied them as the result of the Holy Spirit endowment on them with power. John writes: It is not hard to see why this must be so. Christ had promised to send the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, by whose power they would bear witness to His resurrection even to the ends of the earth. If the Apostles had not worked the signs which Christ had foretold, what assurance would they have had or we after them that He was truly the “first-born of the dead, ״ that He was still with the Church in His Spirit, guiding and directing her teaching, and through her ministry dispensing to the world the benefits of His passion and death? Harnack recognized the importance of the apostolic miracles when he described.[79] The article, “”Jesus’ Healing Miracles: A sign of His Loving Compassion for Humanity” lays emphasis on the healing ministry of Jesus through the church today. The anointing of Jesus Christ is available today to enable believers or the church to move in the supernatural phenomenon. Olu wries: There is so much brokenness in our society that there is a cry to the Church to minister to those who are emotionally, mentally, spiritually and physically sick. This has increased the need for encouraging the healing ministry in the Church today. Such a ministry will enable JESUS* LOVING COMPASSION FOR HUMANITY 111 the sick and the suffering to experience God’s healing power in their lives. In faith, they will open up to the Holy Spirit at work in the world thereby releasing God’s healing Power on suffering humanity. Consequently, Healing Masses, miracle crusades and evangelistic gatherings continue to attract large crowds looking for spectacular cures for some incurable diseases. Faith healing; a sign that God’s power is at work in our modern world is a growing phenomenon in the Church today.[80] The church of Jesus Christ is operating in limiting power to meet the need of suffering humanity including ministers and congregants. Has God changed or the pronouncement of cessationists that when the apostles died, they died with the power and the power stopped functioning. God has not changed and he will never change based on his nature and doings. The problem is not with God, but man has the problem. The continuance of disobedience before God by lay leaders, ministers, and congregants overshadows God’s power in our dispensation today. God cannot work in people who live in continuous disobedience. Every believer has the anointing of God, but how many Christians are cultivating this anointing? The anointing can be cultivated through continuous obeisance before God, prayer and fasting, being a lover of soul winning, and the eagerness to desire spiritual things. In the book of Romans 1:4 states that Jesus was declared to be son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness. Without holiness, no one can be used of God. The book entitled, Understanding the Anointing written by Hagin, speaks about the gifts of the Holy Spirit, the various ministries as recorded in scriptures, the types of anointing, the work of the Holy Spirit in the life of Jesus, the lives of the Apostles, various signs, wonders, miracles, and healing performed by Jesus followed by the apostles, and how the ministers of God in the era of the New Testament dispensation can recognize, actualize, and maximize his potentials to enable him become an instrument in God’s hand for God’s use. Hagin writes: Jesus’ Ministry-He is the son of God but he could not perform healing or miracles without being anointed-Individual anointing. Then the word of God tells us about Jesus’ returning into the Galilee and attending the wedding feast at Cana with His mother. There He turned water into wine, and the Bible says this was the first miracle Jesus wrought. “This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.” (John 2:11 KJV)[81]

            Jesus did not commence ministry until he was endowed with power from above though he was God; however, Jesus did not function as God to run ministry, but he functioned as man; for this reason he needed to be anointed by God to carry out this spiritual ministry which requires supernatural endowment. If Jesus functioned as God in ministry, he needed not to have been anointed because God does not need to be anointed for the fact that the term “anointed” is synonymous with God. One does not give out anything one does not possess; therefore, God is the anointing and when he lives in the believer, the believer becomes anointed as the result of the presence of God. The book entitled, The Anointing: The Biblical Road to Blessing written by Hinn, delineates on the gifts of the Holy Spirit and how ministers are empowered to execute the mandate Jesus left with his disciples during his stay on earth. Without the anointing of God in the lives of the ministers of God, there exists difficulty in running an authentic and spiritual ministry to meet the various needs of humanity at large. He writes: Authentic ministry is humanly impossible. We are called to extend God’s rule in a world infested by demons and dominated by human societies that rebel against precisely that authority. For this reason, we need a supernatural power to execute our calling with eternal value. Thankfully, God invests us with this power by endowing us – by filling us – with His Holy Spirit. We call this spiritual investiture, “anointing,” hearkening back to the days when the Old Testament priests would “anoint” the chosen king or prophet with oil, which represented God’s presence; authorizing that individual to act on behalf of His rule on earth. On the day of Pentecost, the risen and exalted Jesus poured out this anointing upon the apostles, empowering them to deliver his gospel “to the ends of the earth!”[82]

            The qualification of being anointed is receiving Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior; then, the promise of the Father whom Jesus talked about in Acts chapter one, the promise become yours as Christians. Believers need this divine appointment and election to execute the mandate of Jehovah on planet earth. As the kings, priests, and prophets were set apart by divine appointment and election through the inaugural ceremony of anointing with oil and receiving empowerment to act in their various offices, then; believers receive the same appointment and election when they believe in Jesus Christ; then, the Spirit of Christ comes to live in them. Believers are indwelled by the Holy Spirit; eventually, they are potential candidates for God’s use. Believers are kingdom of priests and holy nations. (Ex. 19:6; I Pet 2:9)[83] Being kingdom of priests and holy nations qualifies and guarantees the believers the anointing of God to function effectively and efficiently in the Christian ministries with power manifestation to deliver, to heal, and to bless the body of Christ. The “Benson commentary[84] states, “And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands upon him and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the Lord commanded Moses.”(Deut 34:9 KJV)[85] According to the commentary, Joshua was full of the Spirit of wisdom and other gifts cemented by graces necessary for ruling or government. Moses laid his hands upon Joshua to commit to him the supreme authority and gifts of Divine Spirit to qualify him to take his position after he will have departed to be with the Lord. This was the ordination of Joshua to commit to his office that Moses had occupied as was practiced by the apostles accompanied with prayer (Acts 6:6; 1 Timothy 4:14, 2 Timothy 1:6). After the ceremony of ordination, the children of Israel hearkened unto him and submitted to him respectfully as the Supreme authority that God has appointed to them. The commentary also discusses Numbers 27:18 the same episode concerning Joshua’s ordination in like manner as Deuteronomy 34:9. These scriptural texts are necessary to discuss the sayings of the Anti-Pentecostal and Charismatic movements concerning the alleged saying that these groups (Pentecostal and Charismatic) are preaching that special or anointed people can transfer the gifts of God to another person needing the gift or gifts when the Holy Spirit is the only person who has the resources to give the gifts (spiritual gifts mentioned in I Corinthians 12 and 14). Various exegetical scholars’ works have been used to correct these hermeneutical and practical errors. Romans 1:11 and 2 Timothy 1:6 and scriptures in the book of Acts where the believers received the Holy Spirit through the laying of the hands by the apostles. Articles discussing this topic on the anointing followed by sermons preached in the Pentecostal and Charismatic circles are being criticized. The truth is that there are lots of hermeneutical errors coupled with malpractice of how the anointing and gifts of the Holy Spirit have been handled practically; however, the anti-Pentecostal and Charismatic movements have some deficiencies practically when it comes to the understanding of the anointing, impartation, manifestation, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit. I see intellectualism and rationalism versus spiritual reality. I agree that no human being has the spiritual gift or gifting to transfer to another individual; notwithstanding, God can use the anointed individual as medium to transfer the gift symbolically as seen in Deuteronomy 34:9, Numbers 27:18, 2 Timothy 1:6, 1 Timothy 4:14, Romans 1:11 and scriptures in the book of Acts where the believers received the Holy Spirit as the result of the apostles laying their hands on them. If the believers received the Holy Spirit when the apostles laid their hands, it indicates that God can use any medium to transfer his blessings, graces, and anointing. God has used the media of oil, salt, water, clay, clothes, and shadows of anointed men of God to bless, to heal, and to deliver people (2 Kings 2:21, James 1:14-15, Exodus 17:6, Acts 19:12, John 9:6). When intellectuals rationalize without spiritual eye of faith, the sovereignty of God can be minimized based on time, space, material, and personality differences. Leonard and Rafael comment: The idea is that modern “five-fold” prophets and teachers can dispense spiritual gifts to believers at will is a very serious misinterpretation of Scripture. The apostle Paul’s exhortation to Timothy is often used to substantiate this teaching: “For this reason I remind you to fan into flame the gift of God, which is in you through the laying on of my hands” (2 Tim. 1:6). The gift that Timothy had is stated to be a “gift of God” that, according to popular belief among Pentecostals and Charismatic, is an irrefutably clear reference to the special spiritual gifting mentioned in 1 Corinthians 12 which involve gifts of tongues, interpretation, miracles and prophecy, among others. This, for many, is a “Holy Ghost blank check” meant to be gateway to the “deep things of God” all are to receive from the hosts of the “five fold ministry” all around today.[86]  The above quotation mentioned ‘modern five-fold prophets and teachers claim to dispense spiritual gift indicates that Leonard and Rafael seem to be cessationists. If the apostles in Acts lay their hands on believers and the Holy Spirit was given; then, what makes today’s apostles, prophets, and teachers different from the former? God has not changed as the result of time, space, materials, and personality differences. If God used the apostles of antiquity to lay hands on believers and they received the Holy Spirit, he can do the same today despite of individual personalities and timing. If Leonard and Rafael recognize that the individual earmarked to be prayed is being chosen by God; then, the issues of impartation and transferring of anointing will not be a problem because God is symbolically using the human vessel to confirm. If Joshua received the Divine Spirit of God to lead, he is a possible candidate to possess the gifts of the Spirit such as healing, miracles, prophecy etc. The Holy Spirit is the giver of all these spiritual gifts mentioned in I Corinthians 12 and 14. If believers received the Holy Spirit when the apostles lay their hands; then, they are candidate to receive the spiritual gifts mentioned in scriptures. How can you have the Holy Spirit and be deficient of his gifts? Christians are asked to desire spiritual gifts in order to receive them (I Cor 14:1).[87] The “Strange Fires” is an article which criticizes the Pentecostal and Charismatic movement with relative to how the movement claims to impart spiritual gift to those needing it, the transfer of anointing through the laying of hands and the various manifestations displayed during these meetings of revivalists. Leonard and Rafael quote and comment: The need we say is the need of an outpouring of the Spirit of God. But, clearly, by definition, the Spirit of God can only be outpoured on and can only honor His own truth. The Holy Spirit cannot honor a lie. He cannot honor a negation of truth…So if we want the blessing of the Holy Spirit, clearly, we must make sure that our position conforms to His truth.[88] If D. Martin Lloyd-Jones’ statement is correct (and we have no reason to refute it), then I have a difficult time endorsing movements that have their basis in unbiblical teaching (impartation/anointing) and practices (the “manifestations”). We are called upon by the proponents of these movements to “judge the fruit.” [89]

            It is factual that the teaching or philosophy on the anointing by some Pentecostal-Charismatic groups or preachers is characterized by heresies; however, some of these preachers or teachers are actually anointed. Despite of being anointed, some are untrained biblically and may not even be teacher or preacher of the word. Some of these Pentecostal-Charismatic preachers or teachers are driven by self-.induced revelation; as the result, they take scriptures out of context and preach heresies. Based on manifestations, not every manifestation you see in these meetings is Holy Spirit’s. Some of these manifestations are the result of demons present in lives of people who come to these meetings. Every experience child of God who knows the operation of demons or demonic manifestation can discern if the Holy Spirit is present or not. The Holy Spirit is not violent, but when he is present in the service, people with contrary spirits can go wild manifesting varying as the result of the kind of evil spirits they are carrying. In prophetic or deliverance gathering, manifestation of evil spirits is obvious and inevitable. The claims by the Anti-Pentecostal-Charismatic movements concerning manifestation, their knowledge in such area seems limited. Some of these manifestations should not be attributed to the Holy Spirit; therefore, the Anti-Pentecostal-Charismatic movements should not be confused concerning these experiences to be of God or not. According to “Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers on 2 Timothy 1:6” states that the gift of God was the special gift of the Holy Spirit conferred on Timothy at his ordination and which included, in his case, powers necessary for the performance of the many and important duties to which he was in the providence of God called, especially those gifts of ruling and teaching which are necessary for the Chief Pastor’s office. It was conferred through the medium of hands laid on Timothy’s head at his ordination at Lystra.[90] By virtue of his position as believer, Timothy already had the gift of God deposited in him through the working of the Holy Spirit. According to this commentary, Timothy already had the gift of administration and teaching by the anointing he received when the apostles laid hands on him. According to the scripture, it was not only gifts of administration and teaching, but he also received the gift through prophecy (1 Timothy 4:14). God spoke through a medium to transfer the gifting to Timothy. The gift (prophecy) of the Holy Spirit was used to transfer and to confer on Timothy the gifts of ruling and teaching and God used the apostle to accomplish the same.

            According to the “Pulpit Commentary, the laying on of hands was also the medium through which the Holy Ghost was given in confirmation (Acts 8:17), and in healing (Mark 16:18; comp. Numbers 27:18, 23.[91] God has placed gifting in Christians through the working of the Holy Spirit (I Corinthians 12 and 14). If God can take the ability, the skill or the spirit of Moses as recorded in Deuteronomy 34:9 and Numbers 27:18 and transfer it to Joshua so he can be empowered with the Divine Spirit of the Lord to execute the duties after Moses has died, the same God who lives in Christians through the presence of the Holy Spirit can do the same in today’s Christians or ministers. The controversy on the doctrine of impartation, anointing, and manifestation between the Pentecostal-Charismatic group to that of the non-Pentecostal-Charismatic group should be viewed both hermeneutically and taking God’s sovereignty into considerations. God has not changed and no one can limit God in time and space as the result of intellectualism. When intellectuals analyze, rationalize, and conclude based on objective knowledge and the now knowledge forgetting God’s sovereignty and faith work with the Lord, they can go wrong in their thinking about God and spiritual things. The article entitled, “The Significance of Joshua’s Reception of the Laying on of Hands in Numbers 27:12-23 gives the exegetical explanation of Numbers 27:18 and Deuteronomy 34:9 concerning the practice of imposition of hands to transfer ability or skill to the next person in command in term of leadership[92]. This is usually termed as ordination as practiced in the New Testament era.

            The article entitled, “Our Responsibility as the Beneficiaries of the Gifts of God gives a synopsis of Christian responsibilities as they have been given the gifts of God (blessing, anointing etc.). Christians are encouraged to show gratitude and reverence to the Giver of the gifts ignoring past failures and sharing with others the gifts and reproducing themselves in others in order the preserve the gifts for the next generations.[93]

            The anointing is being given to the body of Christ to enrich (deliverance, healing, impartation) others. This gift should be preserved through sharing with others. Christians are anointed primarily to preach the Good News to the poor, to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to release the oppressed, and to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor (Luke 4:18-19).[94] The article entitled, “What is Biblical Anointing”, delineates and examines the typical view of the anointing in the Old Testament giving the meaning and its significance in Hebrew, ‘mashach’ signifying to smear or spread a liquid. These typical views include anointed places (Genesis 28:18-19; 35:14-15; /John 4:19-24, anointed objects (Exodus 29:36/Rev. 1:8, 17c/f Rev. 21:6, Hebrew 9:12-14), anointed persons ( I Samuel 10:1; 16:1, 13, Luke 4:18, Acts 10:38, general anointing upon God’s people (II Corinthians 1:21-22, I John 2:20; 2:27 and several prohibitions to observe (Exodus 30:31-33; 30:22-25; 34, Ps 133:2).


The ‘Smith’s Bible Dictionaryactually and fully defines anointing in the context of materials and Spirit and outlines the five purposes of the anointing oil as discussed and substantiated in scriptures. While the “Jewish Encyclopedia defines the use of the anointing oil with respect to ordinary, religious, and ritual use. “The Anointing in the Old Testament” gives the historical origin of the use of the anointing oil and its necessities with respect to cosmetic, medicinal, and ritual utilization. These three articles give good information concerning the anointing oil and Spirit naming the beneficiaries of the anointing oil and the empowerment received by those who come in contact with the oil in the name of Jehovah and the deities that are associated with Near Eastern population. What role does the anointing oil play in the inaugural ceremonies of the biblical priests, kings, and prophet and the pagan priests, kings, and prophets? I believe oil is significance in the invocation of spirits since both biblical people and pagan world use oil in their ceremonies with respect to cultural practices. These sources are creditable materials useful for the topic under review (The Anointing).

            The “Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick discusses the hermeneutical ambiguity presenting a misconception concerning the theological understanding of the anointing oil in James 5:14-15 with relative to the sick on their deathbeds. While the” Anointing of the Sick in theChurch of Englandclarifies and corrects the misconceptions surrounding the use of the anointing oil for the sick on their deathbeds and encourages the Church to use the anointing oil for restorative healing instead of using it on the sick who are on their deathbeds. The article, “Anointing the Sick with Oil gives an exegetical study of James 5:14-15 contemporarily liking the anointing oil to be the Holy Spirit mysteriously being packaged in the bottle. This is a misconception and a heretical teaching which needs addressing. The Holy Spirit is not the oil neither is the oil the Holy Spirit. The oil is being used as medium through which God blesses his people to set apart, elect, heal, deliver, and restore them. These articles talk about the misconceptions surrounding the anointing oil and the anointing of God. One gives an exegetical explanation, the second the hermeneutical ambiguity, and the third the clarification and correction of the use of the anointing oil as recorded in James 5:14-15 and the anointing oil in general. These articles are useful in discussing the misconception surrounding the use of the anointing oil. The misconceptions are not limited to these as the result of lack of scholarship on this subject.

            The article, “Anointing for Healing explains the significance of the anointing oil in the ministry of healing as Jesus sent out his disciples with the authority to cast out unclean spirits and to heal the sick using the anointing oil. The article, “Anointing for Healing: Critical Analysisof a Brethren Practice gives the summation and significance of the use of the anointing oil during the era of the Old Testament. These articles elucidate the significance of the anointing oil as good resources for the discussion of the subject.    The article, “The purpose of anointing the Sick: A Reappraisal asserts that the sacramental apostolic ministry of healing recorded by the gospel writer did follow the church as the prolongation of Christ’s ministry as he sent his disciples for mission to cast out evil spirits and to heal the sick. While “Miracle Narratives in the Acts of the Apostles confirms that Jesus indeed empowered his disciples through the person and presence of the Holy Spirit to exorcize and to heal the sick.

            The articles and books entitled, “Miracle Narratives in the Acts of the Apostles, JesusHealing Miracle: A Sign of His Loving Compassion for Humanity”, Understanding the Anointing, and The Anointing: The Biblical Road to Blessing, all emphasize on the healing ministries of Jesus and how this ministry is being entrusted to the body of Christ. There are some theological problems observed in some of the books which include the Biblical Road to Blessing and Understanding the Anointing. These books and articles are useful to include in the writing of the research paper.

            The article and commentaries entitled, “The Significance of Joshua’s Reception of theLaying on of Hands”, “Pulpit Commentary”, “Benson Commentary, and “Ellicott’s Commentary discuss servant-hood leadership ordination through the laying on of hands by spiritual authority. These article and commentaries tend to answer some of the controversial issues surrounding the misunderstanding of impartation as stated in scriptures, the anointing, and varying manifestations seen during revivals or Christians gatherings held in the Pentecostal-Charismatic circles.[95] They are good resources that can be used to get the hermeneutical insinuation concerning the passage.

            The article, “What is Biblical Anointing discusses the typical view and application of anointing oil in the Old Testament and while “Our Responsibility as the Beneficiaries of the Gifts of Godelaborates on the Christian’s responsibilities tied to the gifts. The primary reason for God’s anointing is to bless humanity; therefore, the two articles are tied together by the reason of the common theme. Finally, the article entitled, “Strange Fires: Impartation, Anointing, Manifestation discusses the hermeneutical and practical errors observed in the Pentecostal-Charismatic circle concerning the teaching on the anointing, impartation, and manifestation.


            While the doctrine of the anointing has undergone evolutionary phenomenon during the previous years of Christian ministry with respect to how it has been presented theoretically and practically based on denominational background, cultural church orientation, and biblical scholarship, its pedagogy, based beliefs systems, spiritual practice, and definition has not come to one consensus in Christendom as the result of the above listed factors; notwithstanding, biblical passages which delineate on this topic should be exegetically examined to safe guide against heresy on the teaching of the anointing and its spiritual practice concerning impartation and its effects on humans and demonic manifestation.


Ajihade, Ezekiel A.” Anointing the Sick with Oil: An Exegetical Study of James 5:14-15”, Ogbomosho Journal of Theology. Database: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. 13 no 2 2008.

Alana, Olu E. “Jesus’ Healing Miracles: A Sign of His Loving Compassion for Humanity.” Afer 42, no. 3-4 (June 2000): 106-113. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed September 28, 2016).

Bay Leonard & Martinez, Rafael D. “Strange Fires: Impartation, Anointing, and Manifestation.” Spiritwatch Ministries, retried 10/26/2016.

Bowman, Warren D.” Anointing for Healing”, Brethren Life and Thought, 4 no 3. Database: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Sum 1959

Christian Community Church Arklow. “Our Responsibility as the Beneficiaries of the Gifts of God,” retrieved 10/25/2016.

Dr Smith, William. “Entry for ‘Anointing,'”. “Smith’s Bible Dictionary”. . 1901.

Eager, George B. “Jewish Encyclopedia, article “Anointing”; BJ, IV, ix, 10, DB, article “Anointing,” etc.

Furioli, Anthony. “The sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick.” Afer 29, no. 2 (April 1987): 76. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2016

Gusmer, Charles W. “Anointing of the Sick in the Church of England”. Database: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. 45 no 5 May 1971

Hagin, Kenneth E. Understanding the Anointing. United States: Rhema Bible Church AKA Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1983

Hardon, John A. “Miracle Narratives in the Acts of the Apostles.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 16, no. 3 (July 1954): 303-318. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed September 27, 2016).

Hinn, Benny. The Anointing: The Biblical Road to Blessing, Good Morning Holy Spirit. United States: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2016

Kettering-Lane, Denise D. “Anointing for Healing: Critical Analysis of a Brethren Practice.” Brethren Life and Thought, 60 no 2. , Database: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. Fall 2015

Klein, Ralph w. “Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:1-5, 9-10”. Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago, IL: Christ Seminary-Semnex, 2009.

Mattingly, Keith. “The Significance of Joshua’s Reception of the Laying on of Hands in Numbers 27:12-23”. Andrews University: Andrews University Seminary Studies 392, Autumn 2001

 Palmer, Paul F. “The Purpose of Anointing the Sick: A Reappraisal.” Theological Studies, 19 no. Database: ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. 3 Sep 1958

Peifer, Claude. “Anointing in the Old Testament”. Database: ATLA Religion Database .with ATLASerials, 35 no 9 Oct 1961

“The Benson Commentary”/

“The Ellicott’s Commentary for English Reader”/

“The Pulpit Commentary”/

[1]Dr William Smith, “Entry for ‘Anointing,'”. “Smith’s Bible Dictionary”. . 1901.

[2]Ruth 3:3.

[3]Mic 6:15.

[4]Luke 7:46.

[5]Ps 23:5.

[6]I Kgs 19:16

[7]I Chr 16:22.

[8]Ps 105:15.


[10]Exod 40:15.

[11]Num 3:3-4.

[12]Exod 29:29-30.

[13]Lev 16:32-33.

[14]Lev 4:3.

[15]I Sam 9:16.

[16]I Sam10:1.

[17]I Kgs 1:34.

[18]I Kgs 1:39.

[19]I Sam 10:6.

[20]I Sam 16:13.

[21] I Sam16:14.

[22]I Sam 17:50.

[23]Gen 39:1-23.

[24]Gene 41:37-44.

[25]Ralph w. Klein, “Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:1-5, 9-10”. Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago, IL: Christ Seminary-Semnex, 2009.

[26]Gen 31:13.

[27]Exod 30:26-28.

[28]Jas 5:14-15.

[29]Mark 6:13.

[30]Ps 2:2-3.

[31]Dan  9:25-26.

[32]Isa 61:1-3.

[33]Luke 4:18-21.

[34]John 1:41.

[35]Acts 9:22.

[36]Acts 17:2-3.

[37]Acts 18:28.

[38]John 1:32-34.

[39]Acts 10:38.

[40]II Cor 1:21-22.

[41]Smith Dictionary paraphrased on the spiritual anointing with the Holy Spirit.

[42]George B. Eager, “Jewish Encyclopedia, article “Anointing”; BJ, IV, ix, 10, DB, article “Anointing,” etc.

[43]Ruth 3:3.

[44]Psa 104:15.

 [45]Deut 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 12:20; 14:2; 2 Chr 28:15; Ezek 16:9; Mic 6:16; Dan 10:3.

[46]Matt 6:17.

[47]Matt 6:17; 2 Sam 12:20; 14:2; Dan 10:3; Judith 10:3.

[48]Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 12:20; Ezek 16:9; Susanna 17).

[49]Eccl 9:8; Ps 23:5.

[50]Ps 23:5; Luke 7:46.

[51]Luke 7:38.

[52]Jas 5:14.




[56]Judg 9:8, 15; 1 Sam 9:16; 10:1; 2 Sam 19:10; 1 Kgs 1:39, 45; 2 Kgs 9:3, 6; 11:12).

[57]1 Sam 12:3, 5; 26:11; 2 Sam 1:14; Ps 20:6.

[58] Ibid.

[59]1 Sam 16:13; Isa 61:1.

[60]Exod 29:7; Lev 4:3; 8:12).

[61]Kgs 19:16.

[62][62]Claude Peifer, “Anointing in the Old Testament”, 35 no 9 Oct 1961, p 577-586.

[63] Ibid. pp. 29.

[64]Ibid, pp. 29

[65] Ibid, pp. 30.

[66]Ibid. pp. 34.

[67]Ibid, pp. 35.

[68]Ibid, pp. 35.

[69]Ibid, pp. 37.

[70]Ibid, pp. 37.

[71]Ibid, pp. 37.

[72] Anthony Furioli,. “The sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick.” Afer 29, no. 2 (April 1987): 76, EBSCOhost (accessed September 17, 2016).

[73]Charles W. Gusmer, “Anointing of the Sick in the Church of England”, 45 no 5 May 1971, p 262-272.

[74]Warren D. Bowman,” Anointing for Healing”. Brethren Life and Thought, 4 no 3. Sum 1959, p 54-62.


[76]Denise D. Kettering-Lane, “Anointing for Healing: Critical Analysis of a Brethren Practice”. Brethren Life and Thought, 60 no 2,. Fall 2015, p 61-74.

[77]Paul F. Palmer, “The Purpose of Anointing the Sick: A Reappraisal”. Theological Studies, 19 no. 3 Sep 1958, p 309-344.

[78]Ezekiel A. Ajibade, “Anointing the Sick with Oil: An Exegetical Study of James 5:14-15”. Ogbomosho Journal of Theology. 13 no 2 2008, p 166-177.

[79]John A. Hardon,” Miracle Narratives in the Acts of the Apostles.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 16, no. 3 (July 1954): 303-3, EBSCOhost (accessed September 27, 2016).

[80] Olu E. Alana, “Jesus’ Healing Miracles: A Sign of His Loving Compassion for Humanity.” Afer 42, no. 3-4 (June 2000): 106-113, EBSCOhost (accessed September 28, 2016).

[81]Kenneth E. Hagin, Understanding the Anointing. United States: Rhema Bible Church AKA Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1983, 46.

[82]Benny Hinn, The Anointing: The Biblical Road to Blessing, Good Morning Holy Spirit. United States: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2016, 63.

[83]Exod 19:6; I Pet 2:9.

[84]“The Benson Commentary”/

[85]Deut 34:9.

[86]Leonard Bay & Rafael D Martinez,” Strange Fires: Impartation, Anointing, and Manifestation”. Spiritwatch Ministries, retried 10/26/2016.

[87]I Cor 14:1.



[90]“The Ellicott’s Commentary for English Reader”/

[91]“The Pulpit Commentary”/

[92]Keith Mattingly, “The Significance of Joshua’s Reception of the Laying on of Hands in Numbers 27:12-23”. Andrews University: Andrews University Seminary Studies 392, Autumn 2001, 191-208.

[93]Christian Community Church Arklow, “Our Responsibility as the Beneficiaries of the Gifts of God,” retrieved 10/25/2016.

[94]Luke 4:18-20.