According to the Smith’s Bible dictionary, anointing is defined as in scripture as either material as oil or spiritual with the Holy Spirit. In this context, in discussing this topic, it will be necessary to look at two perspectives in naming the oil; first is when God uses an anointing upon a mediator to heal, to bless, to deliver, and secondly, to set apart or to dedicate a task as practiced in the Old Testament during the inaugural ceremony of the Jewish kings, priests, and prophets. While the anointing oil is used symbolically, the Holy Spirit is the one who effects or brings to pass the purposes (consecrating, healing, blessing, deliverance, dedicating, and empowerment) of the use of the oil. Customarily, the anointing oil was used on the body or head for beauty or in the absence of mourning (Ruth 3:3; Mic 6:15; Luke 7:46; Ps 23:5); for this reason, it was used for ordinary purposes. Not only was the anointing oil used for ordinary purpose, but it was also utilized for official reason during the inaugural ceremony of the Jewish officials (kings, priest, and prophets) (I kgs 19:16; I Chr 6:22, Exod 40:15; Num 3:3-4). This anointing is a spiritual anointing conferred by the Holy Spirit upon believers (II Cor 1:21-22). It is used as the sacrament in the New Testament to minister to the sick (Jas 5:14-15; Mark 6:13). This anointing refers to the Deliverer or Messiah also known as the “Anointed. One” who would come to heal and to deliver his people (Ps 2:2-3; Isa 61:1-2; Dan 9:25-26; Luke 4:18-20).
With respect to its historical origin, the use of the anointing oil was practiced by primitive men as the result of the effect of climate change. This article, “Anointing in the Old Testament” gives the historical origin of the use of the anointing oil and gives the various purposes of the use of the anointing oil, the persons whom the oil was or is used on and the rationale of the oil usage on such individuals. Peifer asserts: The origin of the practice of anointing is hidden in the dawn of history. It seems to have been known among all ancient peoples, but was particularly common in the Near East, which has supplied us with our most abundant documentation on the history of ancient man. The hot, dry climate of the region contributed to its extensive use. Primitive man used the fat substances of animal flesh to mitigate the effects of the excessive heat upon his skin, and later substituted vegetable preparations, particularly the oil of the olive
The use of the anointing oil extensively was the result of the effect of climate change on primitive men to sooth the skin due to hot and dry climatic condition. Not only did primitive men use olive oil, but they also used fat substances of animal flesh to stop the effect of excessive heat on their skins. Looking at the practices of primitive men on the use of anointing oil, it can be inferred that biblical practices might have become similar to non-biblical people from this end because the Near Eastern people and biblical people shared the same cultural and cognitive environment. The tendency for cultural practices to exist and to infuse in such environment was inevitable due to the co-existence of biblical people with the Near East populations. The anointing oil was utilized as the result of cosmetic purpose because oil is a poor conductor of heat; it protects the skin against sun’s rays and prevents excessive perspiration by closing the pores. Peifer writes: It soothes the pain of burnt and cracked skin and produces a sense of well-being. It was thought to enhance the beauty of the countenance and, when mixed with sweet-smelling perfumes, constituted the principal cosmetic product of the ancient world. In this respect, the Israelites conformed to the general practice of their cultural milieu. We find David washing and anointing himself at the unsuccessful conclusion of the fast which he undertook to implore the life of his infant son (2 Sam 12:20). Ruth beautifies herself with oil to attract the attentions of Booz (Ruth 3:3), and Judith in preparation for her encounter with Holofernes (Judith 10:2-3). The use of the anointing oil was a practice culturally with the Near Eastern populations as biblical priests lived and shared cultural and cognitive environment. Cultural assimilation can easily occur when two groups of people live together from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. From studies, it is obvious that such episode occurred as the result of the people of God living with the pagan’s world. The use of the anointing oil was for comfort and luxury for guests who arrive to pay a visit to their neighbors and the stopping of the use of the anointing oil was considered self-punishment. Peifer comments that Guests are made comfortable in the same way (Ps 22:5), and the failure of Simon the Pharisee to offer this honor to Jesus was considered a distinct lack of etiquette (Luke 7:46). So closely was anointing connected with comfort and luxury that its omission was considered an act of penance? The second rationale the anointing oil was used was for medicinal or curative purposes. The use of it was not basically based on the properties of the oil to heal, but it sometimes comprised of religious and magical basis. Its origin of practice resulted from the ancients’ discovery that oil possessed curative powers for types of sickness, particularly ailments of the skin. Using it would refresh and comfort the patient and medical prescriptions revealed both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia mentioned anointing with oil as a popular remedy for sickness. Peifer comments: Medical prescriptions discovered both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia frequently mention anointing with oil as a popular remedy for sickness. Here again we find Israel living in the same cultural pattern as her neighbors. The younger Tobia anoints his father’s eyes with the gall of a fish to restore his sight (Tob 11:8). Isaiah refers to Israel as a sick man, covered with wounds which have not been soothed of with oil (Isa 1:6). This was the first thing which the Good Samaritan did to the wounded traveler (Luke 10:34), and the method employed by the apostles to cure the sick on their missionary journey (Mark 6:13). In the new dispensation it would be raised to the dignity of a sacrament (Jas 5:14). The third use of the anointing oil according to this article is that it was used for ritual purpose. The anointing oil was used on religious vessels, altars, and significantly, the king, the priest, and prophet were anointed with oil to set them apart for the use of Jehovah. Both pagans and biblical people used the anointing oil in their religious rites. It was believed that using the anointing oil could bring about some mystical or magical powers to the persons or things that have been anointed. Godly king, priest, and prophet of Jehovah received supernatural endowment of power when they were anointed and set apart for the use of God. Peifer writes: Now such a setting apart of a person or thing for the exclusive use of the gods constitutes a consecration. Since consecrated persons or things are considered holy, it was easy enough to take a further step and conclude that it was the anointing which had conferred holiness. But there is another and more important element which originally goes back to the sphere of magic. We have seen that animal fat was the earliest substance used for anointing. The mystery of life fascinated the ancients that they considered any living matter to contain a divine power capable of transferring its vital energies to others. This could be done by eating the flesh and blood of an animal, whence originated the sacred banquet. But the transfer of divine life could also be accomplished by the external application of animal fat, which was believed to contain the divine power in the same way as the blood. Therefore the person or thing anointed was thought to have received a supernatural power and a special divine status. With respect to its biblical practices, the Old Testament kings, priests, and prophets were anointed with oil to serve in their various offices to minister to the children of Israel. The article also names and discusses the three officials anointed under the Jewish commonwealth as commended by Jehovah, the Creator of the heaven and the earth. While this was also biblical practice, it also has its practices among the Assyrians, the Babylonians and Egyptians as well as the Hittites and the Canaanites. Among the Hittites and the Canaanites, the rite was used as the coronation of a king by anointing. Peifer writes: Nevertheless the king was the religious head of his people and the principal priest of the realm and according to the concept explained above, the rite of anointing was believed to confer this sacred status upon him. In Israel, too, it was the ceremony of anointing which introduced the new king to his royal functions. We encounter it as early as the book of Judges. Though it is not certain that Abimelech was actually anointed, the fable which Gotham opposed to his assumption of power (Judg 9:8) shows that this rite, current among the surrounding Canaanites, was accepted as a means of royal investiture. Later, with the establishment of the kingdom under Saul, anointing became a regular feature of the coronation ceremony. Yahweh Himself commanded Samuel to anoint Saul as king of Israel (1 Sam 9:16). Upon the latter’s defection, the prophet was ordered once more to fill his vial with oil and proceed to the house of Jesse the Bethlehemite, where he privately anointed David (1 Sam 16:1-13). Another tradition, which knew nothing of this secret ceremony, tells us that David was anointed when he began to reign in Hebron (2 Sam 2:4) and again when he gained mastery over the entire kingdom (2 Sam 5:3). Absalom, too, was anointed by his followers at the outset of his abortive rebellion (2 Sam 19:10) and Solomon was thus introduced to the succession (3 Kgs 1:39). In the northern kingdom we hear of the anointing of Jehu in the southern kingdom, Joas and Joachaz received the sacred unction (4 Kgs 11:12; 23:30). In Israel, the king was anointed to serve as the representative of God from heaven to the people he led. It was a ceremony performed to set apart the king and empower him for battle and leadership in Israel. Not only was the king anointed, but also the priest also was anointed to serve in the temple to offer blood sacrifices to God on behalf of the children of Israel. This rite was performed to dedicate or to consecrate the priest. Peifer writes: The Pentateuch gives detailed regulations for the investiture of the high priest. After a ritual bath and the imposition of the sacred vestments, Aaron is to have the oil of anointing poured over his head. He is repeatedly designated as “the anointed priest,” and it is clear that this prerogative distinguished him from the other members of the Leviticus hierarchy. Other texts, however, speak of an anointing conferred upon all the priests. Leviticus 8:30 specifies that this was done by aspersion, while the pouring of the oil upon the head was reserved to the high priest alone. Modern commentators, however, generally hold that only the high priest was actually anointed.
Finally, the prophet was also anointed to serve in the prophetic office by the designated individual as God appointed. Few passages in the Old Testament refer specifically to an anointing of prophets. Elias is commanded to anointed Hazel as king of Syria, Jehu as king of Israel, and Elisa as prophet by God; however, there is no assertion of fulfillment of this command. The great prophet of the third part of Isaiah likewise speaks of anointing: “The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn” The prophecy was fulfilled when the Lord entered his home Synagogue and took the scroll of Isaiah. In the Old Testament inaugural ceremonies of the Jewish officials, when the individual was anointed with oil, the Spirit of the Lord came upon the person empowering him to serve in the office. In this respect there is a direct link between the Spirit and the oil which shall be elaborated much in the thesis and the others symbolic anointing which includes wind, fire, water, rain, and river.
Recent archaeological discovery indicates that the oil has been very significant in religious ceremony of the early Christianity in the days of the apostles for sacramental anointing for the healing of the sick as recorded in James 5:14-15. These artifacts connect the scriptures recorded in James and serve as archaeological evidence for the anointing oil being recorded by the early church in the scripture recommended for restorative healing of the sick. The article entitled, “A Brief History of Anointing Oil: The Most Ancient Symbol of Christianity, “For the Oil of the Spirit “states that ‘In 1963, a small ceremonial silver thin plate was found in the Judean Desert near Jerusalem that dated back to the first Century. A Catholic priest and archaeologist named Emanuel Testa deciphered the Aramaic text of this artifact, the first line of which reads: “For the Oil of the Spirit.” According to information gathering, these artifacts were believed to come from the 1st Century baptismal of Saint James the Just and the Apostles and were discovered on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. James who was the brother of Jesus is described as the leader of the initial Nazarene Messianic Church of this century. The article concludes with the following summed up quotation: In 1990, Ludwig Schneider, editor in chief of the magazine Israel Update, struck up a friendship with an old Greek Orthodox monk who lived as a hermit in the Old City of Jerusalem. On one occasion, the monk showed Schneider a cache of artifacts that he had secretly excavated on Mount Zion before the Six Day War in 1967. Schneider was taken aback. Many of these pottery shards, oil lamps and stone pieces were engraved with an unknown symbol. The symbol consisted of a menorah on top, a Star of David in the centre and a fish at the bottom. Schneider was immediately convinced that this must have been a symbol of the first Jewish-Christian church (assembly). The use of the anointing oil or the spiritual anointing given by the Holy Spirit is a debatable controversial issue concerning impartation as supported by the Pentecostal-Charismatic circle but it is being opposed by the non-Pentecostal-Charismatic group. This controversial issue concerning transferring of spiritual gifts or the anointing to another Christian will be heighted in the thesis document.
In conclusion, the use of the oil or the anointing oil dated far back during the era of the primitive men. It was used to sooth the skin as the result of the hot dry climatic condition of the environment. The oil or the anointing oil is naturally good for healing the disease of the skin. After the onset of its use for medicinal reason, it became useful in the invocation of spirits. Biblical people used it to set their officials apart for religious use as recommended by Jehovah and it was worn by people for cosmetic and ritual reasons. The anointing oil is symbolic of the power of God or the Holy Spirit; for this reason, the anointing is being defined in the context of material as the oil and the Holy Spirit (Jas 5:14-15; Acts 10:38).
THE THESIS STATEMENT
This thesis proposal introduces or defines the anointing with relative to materialism and spiritualism as oil and Spirit respectively, gives the historical origin of the anointing oil and its usage on primitive men as the result of climate change, delineates on its biblical practices in both the Old and the New Testaments, discusses some recent archaeological findings with respect to the use of the anointing oil as it connects to the 21st Century Church movement as historical evidence, and incorporates few misconceptions posing biblical controversial issue which necessities its study in the contextualization of the Pentecostal-Charismatic circle to that of the Non-Pentecostal-Charismatic concerning impartation.
Statement Of The Problem
As this thesis paper embodies on the pedagogy of the anointing, it anticipates to research and to find out the solution to one of the controversial issues existing in Christendom between Pentecostal-Charismatic and non-Pentecostal-Charismatic group concerning the impartation of anointing or spiritual gifts to other believers which is generally over exaggerated among the non-Pentecostal-Charismatic groups and also to find the theological implication concerning “the Sacrament of Extreme Unction” recorded in James 5:14-15, as the last rite considered by Roman Catholicism. In this deliberation, the relationship between the anointing oil and the Holy Spirit in discussing the sacramental of Extreme Unction as the late rite will be highlighted.
Purpose Of The Research
This thesis document is aimed at defining the anointing, the significance of the anointing in antiquity and in Christendom, the exposal of the reader of this document to a broad idea concerning the anointing, delineating on the controversy concerning impartation, and clarifying and reconciling the hermeneutical-theological and practical errors observed with respect to the “Sacrament of extreme Unction” as the last rite in Roman Catholicism and exegetically and theologically addressing the issues at hand.
Significance Of The Research
The significance of this research is to expose the researcher to critical and analytical thinking thereby enabling him to synthesize, to analyze, and to evaluate information assemblage leading him to give answer to existing problems being researched and to further create the desire for future research project. The second reason is to expose the reader of this thesis document concerning the anointing and the controversies surrounding it in Christendom. Thirdly, the church of Jesus needs to be cognizant of the spiritual resource (the anointing) she has to be successful in this life and the life to come.
Definition Of Terms
Anointing: This is the act of ceremonially conferring divine or holy office upon a priest or monarch by smearing or rubbing with oil.
Materialism: This is the tendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual values.
Spiritualism: This is a system of belief or religious practice based on supposed communication with the spirits of the dead, especially through mediums.
Inaugural Ceremony: This is a formal ceremony of special event to mark either the beginning of major public leader’s term of office.
Primitive Men: Men that existed before history was ever written.
Olive Oil: Oil which comes from olive tree.
Animal Fat: Fat or grease that comes from animal.
Near Eastern People: The ancient Near East is the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southeast Turkey, Southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands.
Canaanites: This term refers to historical people from the land of Canaan, the biblical region and people in the area of the present day Levant.
Assyrians: These are ethnoreligious group indigenous to the Middle East known as Chaldeans and others as Arameans.
Babylonians: These were people from ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia.
Hittites: There were ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Cosmetic: This involves or relates to treatment intended to restore or improve a person appearance.
Medicinal/Curatives: This relates to curative, healing, remedial, therapeutic, restorative, corrective etc.
Ritual: This is a religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order.
Cultural Assimilation: This is the process by which a person or a group’s language and/ or culture come to resemble those of another group.
Commonwealth: This is an independent country or community.
Artifacts: These are objects made by a human being, typically items of cultural or historical interest.
Deciphered: This is intended to convert a text in code, or a coded signal into normal language.
The “Sacrament of Extreme Unction’ recorded in James 5:14-15 is understood by Roman Catholicism as the last rite formerly during the Middle Ages; as the result, some still believe and carry out this practice today. Different exegetical studies have been conducted on these scriptural verses with different hermeneutical interpretations. In verse 15, the Lord will raise up the sick, which indicates restorative healing to the sick person instead of anointing of the sick person who is on his deathbed. The theology of Extreme Unction in Roman Catholicism as the last rite is not for healing, but it is for anointing of the sick person who will eventually die. If the sick person has committed any sin, the Lord will raise him up is understood in Roman Catholicism context as the resurrection of the dead in Christ. The phrase “raise him up” has numerous variables based how it has been understood and interpreted. Some believe that the phrase “raise him up” refers to when the person has died and upon Christ’s return, he or she will rise up again while some believe that “raise him up” refers to immediate healing which is contextually valid; unfortunately, I do not have control to convince the unbelief as the result of indoctrination based on church orientation and dogmatism. This is my limitation.
These are some of the factors that contribute to my delimitations which prepare and enable me to successfully research this topic under review:
Based on prior works done by people that contribute to the proliferation of numerous articles and books written on this topic and my prior theoretical and practical experience via previous years in ministry, it is easier to navigate and to find primary and secondary sources to conduct this research.
Based on multiple intelligence with respect to learning style, I am an analytical in my approach to problem solving; as the result, I synthesize and evaluate existing problems to enable me consolidate to solve the problem that is at hand.
Biblical Language Knowledge
Based on my in-depth knowledge in the Greek language, I am theologically and exegetically competent to approach the theological problems concerning exegesis to enable me solve hermeneutical problems observed in scriptures with respect to heretical implications.
While it discusses these highlights mentioned above, it also cements this conversation comprehensively as it discusses the statement of the problem posed in the research, the purpose of the research, the significance of the research, definitions of terms as used, the limitations and delimitations of the study, the various methods which will be used to research the thesis topic, tentative outline which tailors the various headings or subheading contingent to be defined or elaborated, and working bibliography that supplements and supports the thesis proposal. Since this work is more of theoretical paper, the method desired and adopted to be used is the archival research method. Using this method involved navigating and accessing primary sources held in an archival system. For example, special collections held in the library includes documentations, manuscripts, books, articles, or records, including electronic records, objects, sound and audiovisual materials. This archival system will suitably fit this study and enable me to achieve the objectives to arrive to the specific goal of the thesis project. The second method adopted is interview with people as to get their opinions on the controversial issue concerning impartation and how the ‘Sacrament of the Extreme Unction’ is being practiced as the last rite in Roman Catholicism.
- Biblical Concept of the Anointing
- Basic Meaning
- In Greek
- In Hebrew
- Historical Origin of the Anointing
- Definitive Meaning
- Old Testament
- New Testament
- Various Symbolic Anointing
- Examination of the Primary Text
- Biblical Exegesis of Luke 4:18-20
- The biblical theology of:
- The Poor
- The Prisoners
- The Blind
- The Oppressed
- Biblical Theology of the Anointing
- Jesus is anointed.
- Prophesied (Isaiah 61:1-2)
- Confirmed (Luke 4:18-20)
- All believers are anointed.
- The Holy Spirit guarantees.
- The Holy Spirit indwells.
- The Holy Spirit is the Paraclete.
- Anointing Reception
- Biblical Exegesis of Romans 1:11, 2 Timothy 1:6, 1 Timothy 4:14, and I Corinthians 12 and 14
- Biblical Examples of the Anointing
- The anointed:
- The Old Testament
- The priests
- The prophets
- The kings
- The New Testament
- The apostle
- The prophet
- The evangelist
- The pastor
- The teacher
- Contemporary Application of the Anointing
- The Efficacy of the Anointing (1 Cor 12 &14)
- The Gifts of the Holy Spirit
- Word of Wisdom
- Word of Knowledge
- Discerning of spirits
- Diverse Kinds of Tongues
- Interpretation of Tongues
- The Misconceptions
- The Oil
- Biblical Exegesis of James 5:14-15
- The Devolution of the Anointing
- Radiation (Acts 5:15-16)
- Convection (Ps 107:20)
- Conduction (Acts 19:12)
- Physical Contact (Heb 6:2; Gen 48:13-20)
- The sustainability of the Anointing
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION
Ajibade, Ezekiel A. “Anointing the Sick with Oil: An Exegetical Study of James 5:14-15.” Ogbomosho Journal of Theology. 13 n. 2. 2008.
Alan, Olu E. “Jesus’ Healing Miracles: A Sign of His Loving Compassion for Humanity.” Afer 42. no. 3-4 June 2000.
Anthony, Furioli. “The Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick.” Afer 29. no. 2.April 1987.
Bay, Leonard and Martinez, Rafael D.” Strange Fires: Impartation, Anointing, and Manifestation,” http://www.spiritwatch.org>fireimpart.
Benson, Joseph. “The Benson Commentary”/http://www.biblehub.com.
Bowman, Warren D.” Anointing for Healing”. Brethren Life and Thought. 4 n. 3.Sum 1959.
Brooten, Bernadette J. Love between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Christian Community Church Arklow. “Our Responsibility as the Beneficiaries of the Gifts of God,”www.christiancommunitychurcharklow.hdpm.org.
Curtis, Vaughan and Bruce, Corley. Romans: A Study Guide Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976.
Eager, George B. “Jewish Encyclopedia, article “Anointing”; BJ, IV, ix, 10, DB, article “Anointing,” etc.www.jewishencyclopdia.com.
Ellicott, Charles John. The Ellicott’s Commentary for English Reader /http://www.biblehub.com.
Exell, Joseph & Maurice, Henry Donald. The Pulpit Commentary/ http://www.biblehub.com
Gusmer, Charles W. “Anointing of the Sick in the Church of England.” Worship 4. no.5 May 1971.
Hagin, Kenneth E. Understanding the Anointing. Tulsa: Rhema Bible Church AKA Kenneth Hagin Ministries, 1983.
Hardon, John A.” Miracle Narratives in the Acts of the Apostles.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 16. no. 3 July 1954.
Hindson, Edward. The King James Version Study Bible .Harrah: Mission Publishing Inc, 2000.
Hinn, Benny. The Anointing: The Biblical Road to Blessing, Good Morning Holy Spirit. Atlanta: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2016.
Kettering-Lane, Denise D. “Anointing for Healing: Critical Analysis of a Brethren Practice.” Brethren Life and Thought. 60 n. 2 Fall 2015.
Klein, Ralph w. “Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:1-5, 9-10”.www.workingpreacher.org/preaching.aspx?commenary_id=340.
Mattingly, Keith. “The Significance of Joshua’s Reception of the Laying on of Hands in Numbers 27:12-23.”Andrews University Seminary Studies 392. Autumn 2001.
Murray, John. The Epistle to the Romans: the English Test with Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1959.
Nichol, Francis D. et al., The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary: the Holy Bible with Exegetical and Expository Comment. Washington: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957.
Orr, James ed. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. wwww.biblehub.com/topical/a/anointing.htm.
Palmer, Paul F. “The Purpose of Anointing the Sick: A Reappraisal.” Theological Studies, 19 no. 3 Sep 1958.
Peifer, Claude. “Anointing in the Old Testament.” Worship 35 no 9 Oct 1961.
Smith, William. “Entry for ‘Anointing,'”. “Smith’s Bible Dictionary”. . 1901. http://www.biblestudytools.com.
Swindoll, Charles R. “The Book of James Overview-Insight for Ministries.” www. http://www.insight.org/resources/bible/the-general-epistles/james.
Thayer, Joseph. Thayer’s Greek Lexicon. Electronic Database: Bible Soft, Inc, 2002, 2003, 2011.
Thomas, Robert L.NAS Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible with Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries. The Lockman Foundation, 1981, 1998, http://biblehub.com/greek/5486.htm.
Vine, William E. An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. n.p: Barbour, 1952.
William Smith, “Entry for ‘Anointing,'”. “Smith’s Bible Dictionary”. . 1901, N.P.
Ibid. , N.p.
Claude Peifer, “Anointing in the Old Testament.” 35 no 9 Oct 1961, 577-586.
Ibid. , pp 29.
Ibid. , pp 29
Ibid, pp 30.
Ibid, pp 34.
Ibid, pp 35.
Ibid, pp 35.
“A Brief History of Anointing Oil: The Most Ancient Symbol of Christianity, “For the Oil of the Spirit,”www.exodusoil.com/history.htm, N.P.
Ibid., pp. N.P.
Ibid, pp. N.P
Jas 5:14-15; Acts 10:38.
2 Peter 1:3-4.
 Ezekiel, Ajihade A.” Anointing the Sick with Oil: An Exegetical Study of James 5:1415.”Ogbomosho Journal of Theology 13 no 2 2008, 56-89.