Synopsis of the Near Eastern Literature and Books of the Bible

Cosmic eschatology is the theology concerned with the study of the final events of history or the ultimate destiny of humanity. Its concept is commonly referred to as the end of the world or the end time where Satan and all his cohorts will be defeated and Jesus sits on the throne as the leader of God’s government.

The millennium is the 1000 years rule of Christ after his second return to earth before the seven years of Great Tribulation. During his return, the Christians will be rapture and the seven years of Great Tribulation will begin. During this time Christians will not be here and Satan will be in control causing chaos in this world. After the tribulation, Satan will be bound and put into a bottomless pit where he will deceive the nation no more.

After the 1000 years of Christ reign, the battle of Armageddon will start. It will be the battle between Satan and God; fortunately, Satan will be defeated during the battle. After the battle, New Jerusalem will come down from heaven on earth where God will be the leader and Father of men. There will no death, sickness or evil in this world.

There are categorically two views on baptism. One baptism is called paedobaptism which supports that children or infants can be baptized and the other view is called credobaptism which supports that only those who believe should be baptized. The first is related to sprinkling of water and the second view concerns the baptism by emersion into water.

I personally believe in credobaptism where an individual should believe in Jesus before he or she is baptized. I do not believe in infant’s baptism as supported by some mainline churches. People should be baptized based on their knowledge about who God is and what are their Christian responsibilities they have before God regarding obedience. Baptism is the act performed indicating that one is a believer and he or she has decided to follow Christ as Lord and Savior. It is done to fulfill all righteousness and its relationship to the Lord’s Supper is that both are sacraments of the Christian faith.

There are non-sacramental, Calvinistic, Lutheran, and the Roman Catholic views about the Lord’s Supper. The non-sacramental view believes that the Lord’s Supper is merely symbolic and it serves to commemorate the blood and body of Christ. Salvation does not come through the Lord’s Supper, but we are commanded to observe it to remember the Lord’s death until he comes. The Calvinist believes that the Lord’s Supper is an aid to make the believer to have faith in God and therefore helps the individual faith to stand. The Calvinist believes that it is the symbol of salvation. The Lutheran believes that the Lord’s Supper is an aid to the gospel message and therefore reinforces the system of belief the Christians have to follow Christ as Lord and Savior. The Catholic believes that the wine and the bread are the real blood and body of the Lord and therefore considers the wine and bread as God. This act is called transubstantiation. Every one who partakes of this is literally drinking the blood and eating body of the Lord.

Among these views, I believe the non-sacramental view where the Lord Supper is only symbolic of Jesus’ blood and body. The bread and wine are symbolic representations of his body and blood and anytime we partake of the Lord’s Supper, we remember the Lord’s death until he comes. I can partake of the Lord’s Supper in the three views except the Catholic view.

Chapter 22: The Book of Esther

  1. The major stumbling block to the canonicity of the book of Esther is that major Hebrew manuscript traditions know the book as Esther is related to Akkadian Ishtar, the goddess. The name is reflected in the LXX as Esthr and in the Vulgate as Esther or Hester. In this light, the recognition of Esther as a work worthy of inclusion in the sacred collection of inspired works has been problematic.
  2. The book of Esther was written during the reign of King Artaxerxes (464 -424 BC).
  3. The major theme of the book of Esther is the establishment of the Purim festival, the act of God that allowed the Jews to become not the victims, but the victors, not the despised but the triumphantly delivered.
  4. The Jews Festival which finds its source in the book of Esther is the Purim Festival.
  5. The biblical Book of Esther is set in the Persian capital of Susa (Shushan) in the third year of the reign of the Persian king.
  6. The book of Esther or the name of Esther is associated with Akkadian Ishtar, the goddess.
  7. Here are some reasons why God’s name may not have been referenced in Esther: first, one emphasis of Esther appears to be how God works behind the scenes. The book of Esther records no miracles and no direct intervention of God at all. In Esther’s story, the Lord redeems His people through the faith and courage of one strategically placed woman and her cousin. All the while, things are happening behind the scenes to bring about the final result. Also, it is possible God is not mentioned directly in Esther because of the circumstances of its writing. Jewish tradition claims authorship by Mordecai. If Mordecai is the author, he wrote the book in Persia while serving under King Ahasuerus (or Xerxes). Instead of directly crediting God for the victory of the Jewish people, Mordecai may have written the book to better fit the polytheistic context of Susa. This would have kept him protected from harm by the king or other enemies while still communicating the account of God’s work through Queen Esther.
  8. The role of Vashti in the book of Esther as recorded she was a wife to the King who refused the order of the King; for this reason, she was deposed of her position and Esther was chosen as the Queen. In reality, she was used to elevate Esther to the Queen position.
  9. The Esther Hebrew name is Hadassah which means myrtle tree.
  10. The book of Esther is the wisdom book in the Hebrew canon.

Chapter 26: The Book of Daniel

  1. Daniel was taken captive by the Babylonians as the result of the destruction of Judah by King Nebuchadnezzar.
  2. Daniel was written in both Hebrew and Aramaic languages.
  3. Daniel served under the ruler of King Nebuchadnezzar.
  4. The traditional date for the book of Daniel is 530 BC.
  5. The date of the book is contested in that the last events of the book cannot be dated with precision but the events of the book spans the period from 605 to 530.
  6. It was under the Persian King of Cyrus that Babylon was captured and defeated.
  7. The seventy weeks of Daniel 9 refer to the 70 years of captivity that the children of Israel would spend in exile.
  8. King Nebuchadnezzar was made beastlike as punishment from the Lord.
  9. The Seleucid battled against the kings of the north, Seleucid rulers of Syria; battle the kings of the south, Ptolemy rulers of Egypt.
  10.  Amillennial, in Christian eschatology, is the rejection of the belief that Jesus will have a literal, thousand-year-long, physical reign on the earth. This is in contrast to premillennial and some postmillennial interpretations of chapter 20 of the book of Revelation.
  11. Premillennial, in Christian eschatology, is the belief that Jesus will physically return to the earth before the Millennium, a literal thousand-year golden age of peace. This return is referred to as the Second Coming.
  12. Darius the Mede is a figure in the Book of Daniel, chapters 6–11, who rules over “the kingdom of the Chaldeans” after the last king of the Babylonian Empire (Belshazzar) is deposed by the Medo-Persian armies.
  13. Belshazzar was the son of Nabonidus.
  14. Daniel was taught the Babylonian language.
  15. The son of man in Daniel 10 refers to Jesus Christ.

Chapter 21: The Book of Ezra-Nehemiah

  1. The strong argument for the combination of the book of Ezra and Nehemiah as one composition is due to the testimony of the most ancient Hebrew and versional witnesses. This policy became entrenched in the practice of the church – Judaism persisted in viewing the work as a unit until the advent of the printed Hebrew Bible in the early fifteen century.
  2. Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem from Persia to rebuild the wall and temple in Jerusalem.
  3. Under the Persian King of Cyrus that most activity in Ezra-Nehemiah takes place.
  4. Nehemiah primary ministry in his return to Jerusalem was to rebuild the broken walls and temple of Jerusalem. He was the governor of the community and also a spiritual leader.
  5. Ezra served in the ministry as the priest of God’s people.
  6.  Regarding the chronological arrangement of Ezra-Nehemiah, it is just and practically necessary to treat the books of Ezra and Nehemiah together. Their contents overlap, much that was done by Ezra being recorded in the book of Nehemiah (viii.-x.). The books are regarded as one in the Jewish canon; the customary notes appended to each book, stating the number of verses, etc., are appended only to Nehemiah and cover both books; the Septuagint also regards them as one. There are serious gaps in the narrative, but the period they cover is at least a century (538-432 B.C.). A brief sketch of the books as they stand will suggest their great historical interest and also the historical problems they involve. In conclusion, the overriding theological concern of Ezra-Nehemiah was for the restoration of the postexilic Jewish community to a position of covenant purity and faithfulness so that it might take up and perpetuate its God-giving privilege and task of mediating his salvific intention to the whole world.
  7. Nehemiah was the governor who was responsible for the rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem.
  8. Ezra commanded the men to divorce their wives because these women were foreign and Ezra was concerned about holiness in the land. Mixed marriages or marrying pagan women would pollute the children of Israel from holiness.
  9. Ezra addressed the congregation in the Hebrew language.
  10. The people from postexilic Judah lived in the Persian Empire after having taken over of Babylon.

Chapter 20: The Books of 1 and 2 Chronicles

  1. The Hebrew name for Chronicles is “debre hayydmim” (accounts of the days).
  2. Chronicles did not record David’s sin of adultery and murder because the account is recorded in Samuel and Kings.
  3. Chronicles was written in 425 BC.
  4. The central theological theme of Chronicles that God through a special covenant relationship with the Davidic dynasty, one exhibited by and centered on the temple and its cultus, will bless His elect people Israel when and as they live in obedience, and through them will extend his grace to all the world.
  5. The purpose of the extensive genealogical list in Chronicles is to trace the family line of Christ.
  6. The absence of Elijah and Elisha in Chronicles is Samuel –King is replete with stories about the prophets; additionally, Samuel has dominant role and only passing notice in Chronicles. With reference to the two, the Chronicler adds little to the content of Samuel-Kings in the account of the political life of the united monarchy.
  7. It is necessary that Chronicles being included in the Old Testament along with the books of Samuel and King for narrating Israel’s history for the purpose of consistency.
  8. Chronicles is found in the book of history of the Hebrew OT bible. It is the sixth book listed in the series.
  9. The reign of Saul gives scant attention in Chronicles as compared to the treatment in 1 Samuel in that Chronicles give account of King in detail.

Chronicles is described as the synoptic gospel in that it is a supplementary material or text to Samuel-Kings. It talks about issues recorded i

Chapter 4: Ancient Near Eastern Literature and the Old Testament

  1. The most commonly used sources for studying of the ANE literature are the earth and rubble.
  2. The key categories of ANE literature include praise hymns, songs for dying gods, laments over destroyed temples and cities, prayers for healing, and protection and as well as other text types.
  3. Scholars often compare Amenemope, III, 9-11 to Proverbs 22:17 -24:22. Scholars do so because the patterns of the saying are slightly similar to indicate that ANE cultural influence had on the saying and culture of biblical writers.
  4. Some key differences between ANE incantations and rituals and activities of biblical priests and prophets include the following: The ANE incantations and rituals center on the god of fertility while the activities of biblical priests and prophets center on the God of Israel and ANE incantation and rituals were sinful and while the activities of biblical priests and prophets center on righteousness.
  5.  
COMPARISON OF GENESIS AND ANE
  GENESIS ANE
Extent of flood Global Global
Cause Man’s wickedness Man’s sins
Intended for whom? All mankind One city & all mankind
Sender Yahweh Assembly of “gods”
Name of hero Noah Utnapishtim
Hero’s character Righteous Righteous
Means of announcement Direct from God In a dream
Ordered to build boat? Yes Yes
Did hero complain? Yes Yes
Height of boat Several stories (3) Several stories (6)
Compartments inside? Many Many
Doors One One
Windows At least one At least one
Outside coating Pitch Pitch
Shape of boat Rectangular Square
Human passengers Family members only Family & few others
Other passengers All species of animals All species of animals
Means of flood Ground water & heavy rain Heavy rain
Duration of flood Long (40 days & nights plus) Short (6 days & nights)
Test to find land Release of birds Release of birds
Types of birds Raven & three doves Dove, swallow, raven
Ark landing spot Mountain — Mt. Ararat Mountain — Mt. Nisir
Sacrificed after flood? Yes, by Noah Yes, by Utnapishtim
Blessed after flood? Yes Yes
  1. The abundant similarities between the Law of Moses and ANE codes are striking as the result of these similarities. It questions if the Law of Moses actually originated with God of the Bible. It leaves question in the mind of the Bible believing Christians if Moses was a plagiarist.
  2. There are much extremes needed to explain the relationship of the Bible to that of the Ancient Near Eastern literature in that there are diffusions of cultural inheritance noted and resemblance.
  3. The three broad levels of interaction between the biblical and ANE world include lexical similarities, shared cognitive environment, and classification/background for biblical passages.
  4. The first of three key areas is the lexical similarities.
  5. The second of three key areas is the shared cognitive environment.

11. The third of three key areas is the classification or background for the biblical passages.

Chapter 4, part 2: The Text of the Old Testament

  1. Conservative evangelicals believe the Old Testament was written in 1000 years.
  2. Some of the nations or cultures in which biblical writers interacted with include Egyptian, Canaanite, Mesopotamia Milieu, Phoenicia, Ugarit, Moab, and Ammon.
  3.  Besides stone, clay, wood, ivory, potsherds, and precious metals, the biblical texts were written on papyrus, leather, and parchment.
  4. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scroll at Qumran helps in the transmission of the Old Testament books as the manuscripts were read, translated, and copied and put into book form.
  5. Some of the faithful evidences of the transmission of the Old Testament texts include discoveries of the twentieth century relative to the Old Testament was that of the DSS at Qumran over several years in 11 different caves. Various people found evidence of about 200 biblical texts out approximately 800 texts or part of texts found at Qumran.
  6. The biblical texts developed late in biblical history to the extent that they had to be passed through oral tradition from one generation to another.
  7. Oral tradition is the act of passing information through mouth or story telling.
  8. At the Qumran, archaeological work proved the existence of the biblical texts evidentially.

Chapter 5: The Composition of the Old Testament

  1. Inspiration is God self-revelation, meaningful, and authoritative communication to human beings. Autograph refers to the unchanging form of the texts of God’s word or original communication from God. Cannon is the list of all books considered to belong to the Bible and is inspired.
  2. God revealed to biblical writers to write through direct revelation, indirect revelation, and oral tradition.
  3. Biblical writers made used of non-canonical written records or oral tradition to writing biblical text.
  4. The significance of the 1000 year period in which biblical writers composed the Old Testament is that it is within that period that DSS has existed.
  5. Proposition 1: The customary concept of the OT canon is locked in too tightly with the original or initial form of the biblical text. Proposition 2: The doctrine of biblical inspiration is linked to a corollary truth and that God guarantees the accuracy of the texts. Proposition 3: The autograph refers to the original document in unchanging form and it is the final form. Proposition 4: The close of the OT canon is the dividing line between inspired editorial activity and uninspired scribal activity. Proposition 5: Only recognized individuals such as the prophet would have been able to participate in this updating process.
  6. The two example inspired textual updating include Deut. 34:5-12 and Genesis 11:28-31.
  7. The basis idea of redaction means editing.
  8. The kind of redaction evangelicals have concerns with is the criticism to say that the bible did not come from God or it is not inspired of God.
  9. Biblical writers were not objective or given to biases.
  10. No bias of biblical writers undercut the infallibility of the biblical books.
  11. Knowing the theological agenda of biblical writers enable us to exegete the scriptural text.

Chapter 6: The Canonicity of the Old Testament

  1. The Hebrew and Greek etymologies of the term “Cannon” means in Greek “rule or standard.” While in Hebrew, it means “reed.” It is the standard or rule at which something is measured at to meet certain criteria.
  2. The Council of Jamnia.
  3. The word “Antilegomena means written against.
  4. The canon was approved by the Roman Catholicism in 1546 during the Council of Trent.
  5. Apocryphal is the biblical or related writing not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture.
  6. There are 39 books in the Hebrew canon.
  7. The three of the five books whose canonicity was questioned by the early Judaism included Ezekiel, Ecclesiastes and Proverbs.
  8. The former prophets tell part of the history of God’s chosen people. They include the early or initial books of prophecy.
  9. Another name for the book of Beb Sirach is Ecclesiasticus.
  10. The term Pseudepigrapha (Greek, “falsely attributed”) was given to Jewish writings of the same period, which were attributed to authors who did not actually write them. This was widespread in Greco-Roman antiquity – in Jewish, Christian, and pagan circles alike.
  11. The book of Ruth does not indeed belong to the prophetical books of history … and even in the Hebrew canon it is placed among the Hagiographa.
  12. What is troublesome about the book of Proverbs according to Rabbis is that they were contradictory.
  13. Melito was bishop of the church in Sardis, an inland city of Asia Minor. His list gives the Hebrew canon minus Esther, and makes no mention of any of the disputed books. This list was published abroad and recommended by Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea.
  14. Two of the ways in which a book was tested for canonicity were the debate in the New Testament and the debate in the postapostolic fathers.
  15. The order of English canon is based on Jewish canon.

Chapter 7: The Transmission and Textual Criticism of the Old Testament

  1. Textual criticism is defined as the study of available manuscripts and translations in order to determine the original reading of the text.
  2. The most important witnesses of the Old Testament document are Hebrew manuscripts.
  3. The Masoretes were people who developed the Masoretic text of scripture.
  4. The Masoretic text is a text which is traditional or it is associated with tradition of text of scriptures.
  5. The existence of textual variants does not undermine the Old Testament.
  6. The contribution of DSS helped in the textual criticism of the Old Testament in that it provided reading and translation of the text originally.
  7. The Greek translation of the New Testament bible is called Septuagint.
  8. The valuable of the Aromatic Targums is that they help in the translation of the Old Testament scripture.
  9. Jerome was the church father who was involved in the Latin Vulgate translation.
  10. A vorlage (from the German for prototype or template) refers to a prior version or manifestation of a text under consideration. It may refer to such a version of a text itself, a particular manuscript of the text, or a more complex manifestation of the text (e.g., a group of copies, or a group of excerpts).
  11. Haplography (from Greek: haplo- ‘single’, graphy ‘writing’) is the act of writing once what should be written twice. For example, the English word idolatry, the worship of idols, comes from the Greek eidololatreia, but one syllable has been lost through. Dittography is the unintentional repetition of letters or words in copying or printing (as literatature for literature). Metathesis is a reaction in which two compounds exchange ions, typically with precipitation of an insoluble product.
  12. Since  variant is a form or version of something that differs in some respect from other forms of the same thing or from a standard, it should be evaluated textually from source criticism.

Chapter 10: The Book of Genesis

  1. The impact of source criticism accounts and identifies two creation accounts (chapters 1-2), two flood accounts (chapters 6-9), and various duplicate accounts (Abraham and Isaac lying) and the division of Genesis into J and E documents primarily. The impact of form criticism accounts for two sections.  Chapters 1-11 are mythical in nature, and chapter 12-50 contains the legends of the patriarchs which have no connection to Moses.
  2. According to preferred view, Moses is the author of Genesis.
  3. The expression which serves as structural key in understanding Genesis is toledot.
  4.  The evangelicals who believe in divine inspiration of the Bible believe that Genesis chapters 1-2 is a myth because ANE literature has myths concerning the creation account and their level of understandings concerning such matter is limited.
  5. Evangelicals who reject the idea that Genesis 1 -2 is myths support their views in that there are no similarities between the ANE creation accounts to that of the Biblical account of creation.
  6.  Young- Earth’s view refers to the views that regard to the age of the earth as between c. 6,000 and 20,000 years BC. An old earth view accepts evolution as a vehicle that led to the earth and animal world and describes “creation” as taking place over the past millions or even billion of years ago. Intelligent design counters the arguments of Neo-Darwin evolution, which assumes an indirect process such as natural selection. Intelligent design claims that intelligent causes are necessary to explain the complex, information-rich structure of biology and that these causes are empirically detectable. Intelligent advocates are theists or theistic evolutionists. Theistic Evolution: God employs the process of evolution and natural selection to shape the universe as it known today. Old Earth Creationism: Evolution supported by divine intervention to create the universe as it is known today. Young-Earth Creationism heaven and earth prepared and heaven and earth filled.
  7. The fundamental ideas of theistic evolution (fully gifted creation) believe that God created the universe and all life by utilizing the process of evolution and natural selection as a tool to accomplish his will.
  8. The fundamental idea of Old-Earth creationism (progressive creationism) believes that God created the universe through the combination of supernatural intervention and providential guidance over a period of hundreds of million of years.
  9. The fundamental idea of Young-Earth Creationism (Scientific Creationism) believes that Genesis 1:1-2:3 as a narrative text and so they interpret it literally. They also discount the impact of ANE myths as a primary means of interpreting these verses.
  10. The three key issues one must consider in evaluating evolution-creation debate include the important difference in fundamental assumption about science, the way scholars identify the literary form of Genesis 1, and whether the days of chapter 1 should be understood as solar days or symbolic for long period of time.
  11. The key theological ideas in the book of Genesis include creation, the rule of God, sin, covenant, election.

Chapter 2: The Historical Setting of the Old Testament

  1. Writing first began in Uruk, a site in lower Mesopotamia known today as Warka and in the Old Testament as Erech (Gen. 10:10). The language of these people and elsewhere in that region were Sumerians.
  2. The world’s first empire was founded by Sargon, the Great, in Agade, in central Mesopotamia. The empire was known as the Akkadian Empire.
  3. The great pyramids were built during the dynasties 3-8 which lasted for about 2700 to 2200.
  4. The Hyksos, a term meaning roughly as “foreign chieftains” migrated from the delta region of Egypt from Palestine during the eighteen century. The relationship of the Hebrews to that of the Hyksos was that Joseph rose to prominent while serving the Hyksos’ pharaoh.
  5. The Biblical texts which provide the date of the Exodus include I Kings 6:1 and I Chr. 6:33-37 converge on the date of 1446 BC for the Exodus and the jubilee data and Judges 11:26 independently converge on the date of 1406 as the beginning of the conquest.
  6. The Amarna letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times. The letters, though written in Akkadian, are heavily colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would later evolve into its daughter languages Hebrew and Phoenician. These “Canaanisms” provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation.
  7. The empire which succeeded the Neo-Assyrian Empire was the Babylonian Empire. Tiglath-Pileser III was crowned king in Babylonia. Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire. He is one of the greatest military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.
  8. The Kingdom of Israel destroyed; and its people carried captive to Assyria and there are revolts against Sennacherib of Assyria, whose army is destroyed by plague as he attempted to capture Jerusalem.

9    After the death of Solomon in about 931 BCE, all the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin (called the ten northern tribes) refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king. The rebellion against Rehoboam arose after he refused to lighten the burden of taxation and services that his father had imposed on his subjects.

Jeroboam, who was not of the Davidic line, was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents. The Tribe of Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, “Every man to his tents, O Israel Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem, and in 930 BCE (some date it in 920 BCE), Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem.

  1. Merodach-Baladan II was a Babylonian King who reigned from 721 to 710 for nine months in 703 maintaining Babylonian independence in the face of the Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade.
  2.  The extra-biblical inscription in which Israel is mentioned is the “Stele of Merneptah” which mentioned the people of Israel. The second occurs in the Egyptian text.
  3. Cyrus issued a decree permitting the Jews to return from Exile.
  4. The Tel Dan inscription provides information about the House of David which was discovered in 1993 by Israeli archaeologist Avraham Biran. It gives information concerning the victory of an Aramean king over his two southern neighbors: the king of Israel and the king of the House of David.
  5. Amenhotep II as Pharaoh of the Exodus.
  6. The ancient Canaanite city-state of Ugarit is of utmost importance for those who study the Old Testament. The literature of the city and the theology contained therein go a very long way in helping us to understand the meaning of various Biblical passages as well as aiding us in deciphering difficult Hebrew words. Ugarit was at its political, religious and economic height around the 12th century BCE and thus its period of greatness corresponds with the entry of Israel into Canaan.

Chapter 3: The Cultural World of the Old Testament

  1. The difference between geography and archaeology is that geography studies the earth and its people while archaeology studies the remains of fossils or man’s past.
  2. Israel, land of the Bible and the historic homeland of the Jewish people, is situated in the Middle East, along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea, and forms part of a land bridge linking three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.
  3.  Mesopotamia, from a Greek word meaning “The land between two rivers,” is situated between Tigris and the Euphrates.
  4. The four major land strips of Israel include the Coastal Plan, the Central Mountain Range, the Jordan River Valley, and the Transjordan Plateau.
  5. The foremost biblical archaeologists of the twentieth century are Albright, C. Gordon, and G.E .Wright.
  6.  The contribution of the Tel Amarrna letters to biblical studies is that they help in understanding early biblical Hebrew language since it is close to the Canaanite language in the middle of the second millennium BC.
  7. The most archaeological find of the twentieth century is the Dead Sea Scroll or DSS discovered in 1947.
  8. On an encampment identified as Keter Hinnom overlooking the Hinnom Valley opposite Mount Zion an inscription on two small cylindrical silver rolls was discovered by Gabriel Barkay in 1979. Inside both rolls were eighteen written lines containing a portion of Number 6:24-26, the priestly benediction. This find, dated to the seventh century BC, is the oldest biblical text ever discovered.
  9. Archaeology has helped biblical studies through the excavation of caves and ancient sites as to discover writings of various kinds including discovery of the Dead Sea Scroll in 1947.
  10. The two regions where writing originated from include Mesopotamia and Egypt whose writings were written in cuneiform (wedge-shaped impressions used in ancient southwest Asia, including one for Sumerian) and hieroglyphics (a writing system which uses symbols or pictures to denote objects, concepts, or sounds) respectively.
  11. The alphabet emerged in Syro-Palestine in second millennium BC. The evident is from the 24-symbol pictographic writing system discovered at Serabit El-Khadem in an Egyptian turquoise mine in the Sinai Peninsula.
  12.  Israelite’s view of God is different from pagan’s view in that the God of Israel revealed himself and clearly made known his desires and his expectations from his people. The children of Israel did not need to have their God fed as the pagans fed their gods through sacrifices inflicting themselves with pain and mutilation of their bodies.

Chapter 11: The Book of Exodus

  1. The sources commonly cited by scholars with respect to the composition of Exodus include J (Yawwist), E (Elohist), and P (Priestly) documents.
  2. The six primary views of the date of Exodus regarding the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt include the following: (a) No Exodus at all. In 1970s a growing number of scholars embraced a thoroughgoing skepticism about the historical credibility of the OT (minimalists). They concluded that the historical books of the OT were not composed until the time of the exile or later. The OT had no value for historical reconstruction. (b) Limited Exodus but no conquest. Discussion of Israel’s departure from Egypt is usually related to the conquest and settlement of Canaan. Limited exodus and conquest (Iron Age l; c. 1150 BC). Gary Rendsburg has proposed that a number of Israelites left Egypt sometime during the reign of Rameses III (around the same time the Philistines arrived in the region) where they rejoined Israelites who had never entered Egypt. Conventional Late date (LB IIB, C. 1250). According to this view the nineteenth Dynasty kings of Egypt oppressed the Israelite, forcing them to build the storage cities of Pithom and Rameses (Exodus 1:10). Middle Bronze early date (c. 1470 BC). John Bimson suggested that archaeologists incorrectly dated the end of the Middle Bronze period and changed the end date of that period from 1550 to 1430 BC. Conventional early date (LB I; c. 1446 BC). This traditional early date for Israel’s exodus from Egypt draws heavily on the chronological statement in I Kings 6:1 which affirms that Solomon began building the temple in the fourth years after the exodus.
  3. The proponents of the late exodus said that Solomon began building the temple in the fourth years after the exodus.
  4. Yes, there is evidence that chronological datum of I Kings 6:1 should be taken at face value that the exodus dates to 1446 BC.
  5. The Mosaic conquest policy which was to guide Israel in the conquest of the land of Canaan was that Moses’ strategy for taking Canaan, no doubt revealed to him by God, clearly had been to attack the land at its approximate midpoint, coming in from the east, and divide it into a south and north section, that each could be con­quered separately.
6. The period of 480 years in Hebrew is presented as, in the eighteen year and four hundred year . Implying the 80th year of the kings, after 400 years of the Judges, the following have been broken down.
         Exodus to Promised Land           40  yrs    Exod 16:35
         Promised Land to Saul            360  yrs
         Reign of King Saul                40  yrs    Acts  13:21
         Reign of King David               40  yrs    1King  2:11
                                          ---
                                          480
 
6.      The key issue related to the destruction of Jericho is the archaeological evidence relating to the date of the exodus.
7.      The Key issue related to the destruction of Hazor is the archaeological evidence to date the period of the exodus.
8.      Storage city date before the exodus; for this reason, it plays important role in the exodus debate.
9.      The plague against Egypt did not address the domain of the particular Egyptian god.
10.  The Book of the Covenant is specific stipulation God want s his people to live so they could different in the land they live and show loyalty as citizens and owner of Yahweh and the Decalogue is general specific speculation ordering the children of Israel to live in order to please their God in various areas of their lives.
 
Chapter 12: The Book of Leviticus
1.      The source cited by critics which receives the most attention of the book of Leviticus is the P source which talks about sacrifices the most.
2.      The evidence which the writing of Leviticus for second millennium is that some may say Moses wrote every word found in the present Hebrew text of Leviticus. Second, other scholars regard Moses as the primary author of the book. Scholars allow minor adjustment of linguistic that would have developed around 1400 to 400 BC.
3.      Leviticus is about sacrifice and Shekinah glory of God theologically.
4.      The three key dimension of the Mosaic Law include the dimension of the Mosaic Law, the covenantal backdrop to the Law, and the basic idea of holiness and purity.
5.      The term “holiness” means apart from everything that is common, ordinary, and sinful. Ritual purity is the act of offering sacrifice before God for cleansing from sinful activity that one has committed.
6.      The concept of sacred space indicates that God chose his people including priests, Levites etc to serve in a particular place regarded as sacred place. The Old Testament sacrificial system and life as part of God theocratic kingdom dealt with this idea of sacred space.
7.      The two broad categories of Old Testament sacrifice include Voluntary Act of Worship and Mandatory Atonement for Sin. Voluntary Act of Worship entails that since God wanted to have fellowship with his people as he dwelled with them in the temple, he needed to offer three sacrifices which include burnt, grain, and fellowship offering. They were offered voluntary for the reason of consecration for fellowship. Mandatory Atonement for Sin was offered as sin and guilt offering before God in some respects while retaining distinct identities. The guilt offering represented the guilty person’s attempt to absolve wrongdoing by making restitution.
8.      The burnt, grain, and fellowship offering fall in the first category of the OT sacrifices.
9.      The three pilgrimage festivals that all Israelite men were to attend include Passover (and Unleavened Bread), Feast of Weeks, and Feast of Tabernacles (or Brooths (Exod. 23:14-18; 34:18-26; Leviticus 23; Deut. 16:1-17).

 

Chapter 13: The Book of Numbers

  1. The discovery of the Ketef Hinnom scrolls is related to the canonicity of the composition of the book of Numbers in that archaeologists unearthed a silver scrolls in 1979 in the tomb on the west side of the Hinnom Valley in Jerusalem. The discovery needs not be proven because the discovery of the text is resembles exactly the text concerning the Aaronic blessing recorded in Numbers 6:24 – 26 and remained unquestioned.
  2. The agenda of the jealousy ordeal recorded in Numbers 5:11-28 concerns Israel’s holiness or distinctness. It presents a case law which deals with a woman suspected of marital unfaithfulness. It is probably singled out because marital fidelity is the foundational to the stability of any society recorded in Exodus 20:14. The different between the jealousy ordeals to that of the ANE ordeals is that in the ANE ordeals is that agent of dangerous to the guilty and innocent alike, the bitter water only endangers party guilty. The ANE ordeals, the accused has to survive something inherently harmful. Most ANE ordeals, the penalty was pronounced by the court separately, but in Numbers 5 the penalty was the outcome of the ritual.
  3. The Israelite tribes who lived in Transjordan included the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh.
  4. Balak anticipated the prophet Balaam to curse Israel; instead, Balaam blessed Israel and cursed the Moabites, Edomites, and Amalekites.
  5. The four primary views of large numbers in the Old Testament include the following: Large numbers are totally fabricated and not historical. Large numbers indicate that all Israelites were totally present. Large numbers were grossly inflated numbers with theological rationale. Large numbers were not to be understood proportionally. For example, Bellinger affirms that these censuses are not attempting to give a detailed account of the past but rather proclaiming the theological message of God’s blessing and promise.
  6. The view of large number which rejects the historicity of the Biblical text is that large numbers are fabricated and not historical.
  7. The strength and weakness of the Semitic view of large numbers is that large numbers accepted as face value and large numbers are intentionally exaggerated respectively.
  8. The strength and weakness of the intentional exaggeration of large numbers is that large numbers are deliberately and purposely exaggerated as a rhetorical device to bring glory to God and large numbers are the fulfillment of God’s promise to the fathers and their descendants.
  9. The strength and weakness of the face value view of large number is that many scholars are aware of the problems with Israelite population of two million and understand that the noun elp means conventional mean of thousand and scholars assumed that the OT large numbers were mean to be understood as such respectively.

Chapter 14: The Book of Deuteronomy

  1. The setting of the book of Deuteronomy according the historical-critical scholarship is that it was written in seventh century.
  2. The setting of the book according to Judeo-Christian scholarship is that it was written in 1400 BC before the death of Moses.
  3.  The scholar who proposed that Deuteronomy was the book of the covenant is Spinoza.
  4. The secular treaty model Deuteronomy follows is that God calls his people (children of the decease Israelite adults) to restate the agreement to them concerning the former treaty he entered with the forefathers.
  5. The Sabbath commandment in Deuteronomy is different from Exodus in the use of language or word. In the Exodus, it says “remember the Sabbath and in Deuteronomy it says “observes “the Sabbath.
  6.  Moses was at Mount Sinai when he composed the book of Deuteronomy.
  7. De watte
  8. Deuteronomy is a theological restatement treaty announced to remind the children of Israel of their social, religious, and political obligation they had before their fellow men and God. The form of Deuteronomy fits better the style of the seventh century BC treaties of Esarshaddon.
  9. The word “shema” is the Jewish confession of faith and prayer.
  10. Joshua composed the account of Moses’ death.
  11. Sihon was the king of the Amorites who refused to let Israel passed his land.
  12. Reuben, Gad, and half tribe of Manasseh elected to remain east of the Jordan during the conquest.
  13. The seventh century texts which are sometimes compared to the book of Deuteronomy are the seventh-century Assyrian treaty texts.
  14. The principal text which a prophet’s authenticity could be determined as a truth prophet of God is Deuteronomy 18:22.
  15. The literary meaning of Deuteronomy is the repetition of the law instead of second law.

Chapter 15: The Book of Joshua

  1. The nature of the international scene at the time of Joshua is that great international power from Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor were in no position to become involved in Canaanite affairs.
  2. The difference between the account of the conquest in Joshua to that of Judges is that according to Joshua the entire land of Canaan was conquered by the united nation of Israel and divided into tribal allotments while in Judges, the conquest was incomplete at the time of Joshua’s lifetime as areas were being conquered by individual tribe instead of the united nation of Israel.
  3. The parallel between Moses and Joshua is as follows: Moses led the Israelites across the Red Sea (waters parted), Joshua led them across the river Jordan(waters stopped flowing

Moses celebrated Passover with the Jews after crossing the sea; Joshua celebrated Passover with them after crossing the Jordan

Both were visited by an angel of god

Both gave farewell speeches before dying

Moses sent spies into Canaan and Joshua sent spies into Jericho.

Portion of the writing of Deuteronomy was written after the death of Moses while portion of Joshua was written after the death of Joshua.

  1. The event which evokes the dividing of the Jordan River affecting the entrance into the Promise Land is the parting of the Red Sea which affects the exit from Egypt.
  2. The three models of the conquest of the land of Canaan include the following: In the traditional model, the conquest of Canaan resulted from a large-scale invasion by the Israelites resulting major victories in Canaan cities and town. The sedentary infiltration model suggests that the Israelites came to occupy the land of Canaan by gradual infiltration into the land. The third model for the conquest depicts the conquest as the result of a “peasant revolt” in which many native inhabitants revolted against those in power, leading to a social and political upheaval.

6.      The covenant renewal takes place in the Joshua chapter 24 at Shechem.

7.      Reference is made to the Apiru in the Amarna letters which compares it as the military incursion of the Israelites during the time of Joshua.

8.      The Apiru are to be identified with the Hebrews according to numerous sources; however, the Apiru has also been considered to be nonethnic group.

9.      God commanded the Israelites to annihilate the Canaanites of the following reasons: The iniquity of the Canaanites has reached its limits and the judgment of God needed to be effected upon them. The purity of the Israelites needed to be maintained; therefore, Canaanites could not have lived with the Israelites. Lastly, the land needed to be preserved by the Israelites which coveys the covenant agreement between Israel and God.

10.  The book of Joshua talked about the complete destruction of the Canaanites cities, kings, and everything which breathes. Indeed every thing in the land of Canaan including the Canaanite themselves was totally defeated.

11.  The occupation of the land of Canaan significantly proves God’s purpose to remove iniquity, defeat diabolic evils carried out by the inhabitants, and to preserve the land for his people where the Savior of the world would come from.

12.  The book of Joshua has to do with the worship of God in that the worship of service of God is the final and culminating section toward which the book progresses. An important purpose for Israel’s occupation of Canaan was to provide a platform for worshipping God.

Chapter 16: The Book of Judges

1.      Martin Noth’s contribution to the history of the book of Judges is that he claimed that a Deuteronomic compiler had united the narratives of early tribal heroes with the minor judges who were actual individual leaders of an amphictyony and responsible for actual duties at a central shrine.

2.      The indication which implies that the book of Judges was composed during the early part of Israelite history is that the book of Judges in entirety clearly indicates the tribes had a consciousness of belonging to one nation which is supported by the name “Israel”. This occurs frequently in the book.

3.      The general international scene among the ANE nations the period of the Judges was that the Israelites in the hill in the hill country and the Canaanites in the coastal regions and lowlands were not threatened or influenced by the major foreign powers during the time of the Judges.

4.      The chronological problem with the history of the Judges is that it neither fits the early nor the late date for the exodus and the conquest.

5.      The solution to the chronological problem of the Judges is that the normal solution for this chronological dilemma has been to acknowledge that many of the Judges had authority over only a restricted region and that many of the Judges overlapped in time.

6.      The role of the Israel’s judge was served as military leader and deliverer.

7.      The purpose of the book of Judges is to call Israel to return to her God from her idolatrous ways as her position as a holy nation was in jeopardy. It describes Israel’s relationship to God between the period of Joshua and the monarchy.

8.      The basis for the arrangement of the tribe in the main section of the book indicates how the judges from each tribe emerged geographically.

9.      Othniel is highlighted in the structural analysis of the major judges.

10.  Dan is designed for leadership in Judges.

11.  The children of Israelites worshipped Baals and the Asherahs in the book of Judges.

12.  The covenant relationship which operates between God and the children of Israel was on the reciprocal relationship. If they obey the God of Israel, they will receive blessing, but if they disobey they will receive punishment or defeat from the enemies.

 

 

Chapter 18: The Book of I and 2 Samuel

  1. The main section Samuel belongs is called 1 and 2 kingdom of the Hebrew bible.
  2. According to Talmud, Samuel wrote the book of Samuel.
  3. The major problem with the Talmudic suggestion is that Samuel’s death is reported in I Samuel 25:1 which preludes his having authored anything beyond that point of the authorship; as the result, it is suggested that Gad or Nathan, the prophet might have written the rest of the book of Samuel.
  4. The principal significance of the Davidic Covenant is that (1) David is to have a child, yet to be born, who shall succeed him and establish his kingdom. (2) This son (Solomon) shall build the temple instead of David. (3) The throne of his kingdom shall be established forever.
  5. On hearing that God had blessed Obed-edom because of the presence of the Ark in his house, David had the Ark brought to Zion by the Levites, while he himself, “girded with a linen ephod,” “danced before the Lord with all his might” and in the sight of all the public gathered in Jerusalem.
  6. Absalom led a revolution against his father David.
  7. Timber came from the kingdom of King Hiram of Tyre to build David’s palace.
  8. Saul was interested in Jabesh-Gilead because there he defeated the enemies of Israel and rescued the Israelites from danger which marked his kingship in Israel.
  9. Joab and his brother Abishai murdered Abner because he had killed their brother Asahel in the battle at Gibeon.
  10. David’s life was spared despite of his adulterous and murderous act because he was conscience stricken of his acts committed and became sorry through repentance.
  11. David spared Saul’s life because he was the anointed of God.
  12. David selected Jerusalem to be Israel’s capital because God had Jerusalem on his mind.
  13. The Temple of Solomon occupied the Araunah’s threshing floor.
  14. David decided to reconcile with his wife Michal because she was about to be given to another.
  15. David’s attempt to build the temple was denied because the first error (not sin) is David’s attempt to beautify the ark’s dwelling. God is not interested in living in temple built by human hand. His intent in building the temple was wrong.

Chapter 19: The Books of 1 and 2 Kings

  1. The book of Kings is associated with the large block of historiography (kingdom) or the book of history and not prophets.
  2. The Talmud’s tradition assigned the authorship of the book of Kings to Jeremiah the prophet.
  3. The authorship is attributed to the Jeremiah because this book is found in the section of the Hebrew bible called the prophet.
  4. Kings cover the major portion of King’s rule in Israel beginning from Zedekiah to the rest.
  5. Hiram of Tyre sent timber of cedar to King Solomon in the effort to the temple.
  6. The Moabite Stone, created by King Mesha of Moab, describes multiple generations of conflict between the Moabites and Israelites that concludes with Israel’s defeat and Mesha’s subsequent building projects. The stone is not the only primary source of the conflict.
  7. The book of the Law was discovered during the reign of Josiah, the king of Israel.
  8. Jeroboamwas proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem; therefore, he was the founding ruler.
  9. The name of the book of Kings in the Septuagint is called 1 and 2 Kings.
  10. The Bible records only one woman who ruled as queen in Israel or Judah, Athaliah. Athaliah was either the daughter or granddaughter of King Omri of Israel; the biblical text is not clear. She was either King Ahab’s daughter or his sister.
  11. King Azariah suffered from the skin disease during his reign and eventually died.
  12. King Ahab participated in the famous battle fought at Qarqar against Assyria.
  13. The sin of Idolatry was responsible for the exile of the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
  14. The three cities Solomon fortified attack against include Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer.
  15. The division of the kingdom resulted from Solomon’s oppressive policies; the incompetence of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam; resentment that David, a southerner, had replaced Saul; and the fact that Jerusalem’s importance as a worship center diminished the significance of Bethel, Shechem, and Dan.

Chapter 23: The Book of Isaiah

  1. Isaiah prophesied or uttered his oracles during the reign of the Judean kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. His oracles were immersed in the turbulent events of his own time.
  2. The Old Testament critic include Julius Doderlein (1789), Joham Eichhorn (1783), and Wilhelm Gesenius (1819).
  3. Scholars believed that Isaiah has been written by different authors other the prophet Isaiah because it has been considered an anthology of prophetic oracles written by different prophets over a period of time.
  4. The Dead Sea Scrolls show no evidence that Isaiah was written by different authors but indicates a separation of space after chapter 33, perhaps indicating that this was the primary division of the book.
  5. The New Testament understands that the book of Isaiah has only one author who is Isaiah.
  6. Isaiah had three sons: Shear-Jashub which means the remnant shall return. Immanuel Means God with us. Maher-shalal-hash-baz means hurry to the spoils.
  7. The nation of Babylon is emphasized in the oracles in the book of Isaiah.
  8. Isaiah 24 to 27 reflects the Genesis account of the flood in the manner that God is going to destroy this earth.
  9. The Prophet Isaiah was primarily called to prophesy to the Kingdom of Judah. Judah was going through times of revival and times of rebellion. Judah was threatened with destruction by Assyria and Egypt, but was spared because of God’s mercy. Isaiah proclaimed a message of repentance from sin and hopeful expectation of God’s deliverance in the future. This is the central topics of Isaiah.
  10. Isaiah contains the word “salvation” than any Old Testament book.
  11. Isaiah is frequently quoted in the Old Testament.
  12. Isaiah refers to the Messiah as Immanuel.
  13.  The critical issue in the interpretation of Isa. 7:14 concern its usage in the NT, specifically the identity of the virgin and her son. The first position states this refers to Mary and Jesus. Isaiah shifted his focus from Ahaz to the royal court as he addressed the whole house of David. Isaiah consistently use the plural indicating that he was speaking to David and his lines. Secondly, it refers to Abi (2 King 18:2) and her child Hezekieh. Thirdly, it refers to Isaiah’s wife and their son Maher-shalal-hash-baz.

Chapter 14: The Book of Jeremiah

  1. The longest prophetic book in the Bible is Jeremiah.
  2. Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry lasted for some 45 years.
  3.  The most important events which occurred during Jeremiah’s prophecy are as follows: The reform of Josiah in 622 BC, the death of Josiah in 609 BC, the failures and rebellions of Josiah’s successors, and the final collapse of the southern kingdom in 586 BC. His ministry can be divided into three periods. The first begins with his call in 627 and ends with the death of Josiah in 609. The second begins with the reign of Josiah’s successors, King Jehoiakim, from 609 to 598, ending with the second Babylonian deportation. The third period took place between the first destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians (598) down to the final collapse of Jerusalem in 586 BC.
  4. The literary forms of Jeremiah are poetry and prose.
  5. The most frequent literary form of Jeremiah is prose.
  6. The overall structure of Jeremiah does indicate a certain chronological order; though, it seems to have been written under a great stress which has its impact in which the chapters are arranged.
  7. Jeremiah addresses a flagrant sin of idolatry.
  8. Jeremiah left for Babylon after leaving Israel.
  9. In the appendix of Jeremiah, we learn about important characters in the Bible who are connected to biblical history.
  10. The prominent attribute mentioned in the book ofJeremiah is God is ever present.
  11. The use the New Testament make use of the prophecy of Jeremiah is the use of the New Covenant mentioned in Jeremiah 31:31-34 paralleled in the book of Hebrew.
  12. The most extensive quotation of Jeremiah is found in Matthew.

Chapter 25: The Book of Ezekiel

  1. Ezekiel lived in Babylon when he carried out the prophetic ministry.
  2. Jeremiah is the contemporary of Ezekiel.
  3. Antilegomena refers to written texts whose authenticity or value is disputed.
  4. Some Jews have problem of Ezekiel being part of the cannon of scripture because there are lot of discrepancies and full of problematic book according to scholars.
  5. Some features which indicate that the book is a unified whole is message moves from judgment to hope after the destruction of Jerusalem, the oracles of judgment against the foreign nations, the message of hope and perennial enemies to be punished. The stylistic features throughout the book also argue for the unity of the book. The phrase ‘the son of man’ occurs 93 times throughout the book as a title for Ezekiel, thus focusing on the prophet’s human nature. The expression ‘ the hand of the Lord was upon me’ occurs in the major sections of Ezekiel, ‘ and they will know that I am the Lord occurs 54 times, “then the word of the Lord came to saying” occurs 46 times and “ the Lord has spoken” also occurs frequently in the book.
  6. The pivoted event in Ezekiel contains the divine inspired prophecies of the prophet.
  7. Ezekiel’s second vision centers on idolatry.
  8. Ezekiel’s wife death was a sign to the nation in that Jerusalem was about to be over taken by enemy forces and the children of Israel including Ezekiel taken into captivity.
  9. The purpose of the oracles against the nations in Ezekiel is that God is going punish the nations which have become trouble for Israel. It is the oracle of judgment.
  10. The judgment of God and Magog differ from the judgment on the other nations in that this judgment is about the future judgment of all nations who hate Israel. This judgment is eschatological in nature.
  11. What constitutes the climax of the book of Ezekiel is the final glorious vision of the return of the glory of the Lord.
  12. The third vision of God in Ezekiel 43 marks the return of God to his people as he returned to the newly restored temple, taking up residence with them once again. It doe correspond to the two visions in chapters 1-3 and 8-11.
  13. In chapter 8-11, the prophet saw the glory of the Lord depart from the desecrated temple (11:22-23), but now the glory returned to the new holy temple through the same east gate through which it has early been departed (43:13-23).

Chapter 27: The Book of Hosea

  1. Micah is contemporary of Hosea.
  2. The major issue concerning the composition of Hosea is that there are different of opinions among scholars concerning its authorship. Scholars have attributed to the book multiple authors instead of the prophet himself.
  3. There are seven units found in the book of Hosea.
  4. Hosea’s marriage to Gomer is the actual marriage.
  5. The name of Hosea’s first child, Jezreel has double application (1:4-5) calls Jehu’s bloodguilt (2 Kgs 9:14-37) and anticipates the end of his dynasty presently represented in the person of Jeroboam II (1:4). It also indicates the location of the nation’s coming defeat in the valley of Jezreel (1:5). Hosea’s second child was a daughter Lo-ruhamah, meaning “Not compassion.” This child’s name made known to Israel that God’s compassion was now withdrawn form them and forgiveness would not be attainable (1:6). The name of the third child Lo-ammi, was especially harsh as it indicated that God was declaring Israel to be “Not My People.” At the time of the exodus God has referred to the Israelites as “My People” in Exodus 3:7; 6:7.
  6. Hosea chapter 2 sets the content of the entire book of Hosea by introducing the worship of Baal by the Israelites.
  7. The Biblical event in which Hosea allude to in chapter 11-9 is the pronouncement of Israel’s apostasy which reflects on the doom.
  8. Besides idolatry, Israelites commit the sin of lies, violence, economic oppression, pride, and rebellion.
  9. The literary structure of the book of Hosea contains many images to communicate his message. He referred to God as a jealous husband (2:2-13), frustrated shepherd (4:16; see also 11:4; 13:6), a destructive moth and undesired rot (5:12), a ferocious lion (5:14; 13:7-8) etc.
  10. The foreign god that Israel was tempted to worship was Baal.
  11. The distinction between Hosea’s and Amos focus Hosea places focus the children of Israel could keep the covenant relationship by not worshipping other gods beside Jehovah while Amos places emphasis on the Davidic Covenant relationship.
  12. Hosea prepares for the New Testament by preaching against idol worship and preaching repentance.

Chapter 28: The Book of Joel

  1. The major view on the dating of the book of Joel is that it provides no chronological informa about the time of its composition. The lack of unanimity arises from the absence of clear chronological information in the book itself.
  2. The two primary structural alternatives on the book of Joel is focusing on the book’s content, described the a locus plaque sent by God.
  3. The locusts in Joel Chapters 1and 2 are human soldiers trained to fight or carried out invasion.
  4. The several views on why Peter use of Joel 2:28 -32 in the sermon on the Day of Pentecost include the following: Primarily, covenant theologians affirm that the event at Pentecost represent to total fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy. The end times have arrived, and God is dealing with a new people involving Jews and Gentiles. Second, traditional or classic dispensationalists believed that the event at Pentecost did not fulfill Joel’s prophecy. Peter cited Joel’s prophecy as an illustration of what was taken place on Pentecost. Third, progressive dispensationalists suggest that the events of Pentecost inaugurated the New Covenant age.
  5. Covenant theologians interpret Peter’s use of Joel’s prophecy as the total fulfillment of Joel’s prophecy.
  6. Classic or dispensational theologians believe that the event at Pentecost did not fulfill Joel’s prophecy.
  7. The Day of the Lord signifies a time when the Lord supernaturally intervenes in the course of human history. It begins with divine judgment on wickedness and can lead to glorious restoration.

Chapter 39: The Book of Job

  1. What complicates the discussion of the composition and author of the book of Job is that the book of Job does not name an author or provide explicit information on its date of composition.
  2. The two areas scholars discussed in relation to the date and authorship of the book of Job include the date of the events in Job’s life and the date of composition of the book of Job.
  3. The genre and structure of the book of Job is prose and poetic ones.
  4. Satan suggests Job is serving God because God has given him riches.
  5. Job’s three friends of Job incude Eliphaz, based his counsel on experience, Bildad, a traditionalist, grounded his advice on the orthodoxy of the past, and Zophar was a rationalist who carefully avoided any minimizing of Job’s sin.
  6. The three horrifying possibilities that Job confronted Job include fear, deprivation, and uncertainty.
  7. The interchange between Job and his three friends indicates that neither Job nor his friends knew the cause of Job’s illness.
  8. Retribution theology is an idea that good deeds are always rewarded while bad deeds are always punished.
  9. Chapter 28 of Job is set apart from the rest of the chapters which followed in that Job is speaking about wisdom and describing who God is and concludes that fearing God is wisdom and getting understanding is to shun evil.
  10. Elihu’s speech provides an explanation to suffering? Elihu is a younger man who has been biding his time in the debate. Elihu’s speech is both a strange one and highly significant in the flow of the book.
  11. The response of God to Job is that God maintains self-sufficiency and has absolute power; therefore, Job needs to recognize God’s ability to do everything that needs to be done with justice and equity.
  12. The most important truth which God teaches Job and all those who read Job is that God has sovereign power and no one understands his sovereignty.

Chapter 40: The Book of Psalm

  1. What must be understood concerning the numbering and versification of the book of Psalm is that the chapter divisions used by the Psalm in the Hebrew text and the LXX vary slightly and while the verse division of the Hebrew text and the English version vary most of the time.
  2. Some of the stages involved in the compiling of the Psalm is primarily involved the writing of the individual poems/Psalm. It was primary used for temple worship or kind of prayer book. When individual Psalms were written, they were collected for use in regular worship. Secondly, the individual Psalms were gathered as the testimonies of David and early collection as the prayer of David. Thirdly, smaller collections were then organized into five books and fourth final edition was completed.
  3. The authorship of each Psalm can be determined by attaching the name of the author and the Psalm division. They include the following: Moses – 1 Psalm 90, David – 73 Psalms (mostly in Books I and II), Solomon – 2 Psalms ( Psalms 72, 127), Asaph – 12 Palms ( Psalms 50, 73-83), Sons of Korah – 10 Psalms 42, 44 – 49, 84-85, 87), Heman, the Ezrahite – 1 Psalm ( Psalm 88), Ethan, the ezrahite – 1 Psalm 89).
  4. The three major Psalms include praise, lament, and thanksgiving.
  5. The key role of royal Psalms that it places great emphasis on God’s rule over his creation and his covenant nation in particular. These Psalms focus on the king of Israel and depict him as God’s representative through whom he rules over his chosen people.
  6. The function of the enthronement Psalm is that they describe the annual enthronement festival, much like the Akitu festival in Babylon, which symbolized the re-enthronement of Yahweh. However, there is no biblical teaching in other parts of the OT.
  7. Evangelical scholars describe the Messianic Psalms as the Psalms which talk about the anointed ruler from the line of David, who will rule over his kingdom with justice and compassion.
  8. Imprecatory derives from the Latin verb Imprecari which means the action of calling evil, calamity, or divine vengeance upon another, or up0on oneself, in an oath or adjuration: cursing. It creates
  9.  The problems in the understanding the languages in the New Testament such as love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.
  10. The biblical and the theological backdrop one much keep in mind concerning the imprecatory Psalm is that we must always forgive people who wrong us and not place curse on them.
  11. The three central elements of the theology of the Psalter include its literary features, its theological character, and its unique makeup.

Chapter 41: The Book of Proverbs

  1. Proverbs 1-9 is thought to reflect late dating because they have been assigned to the exilic and post exilic period of the Babylonian captivity.
  2. Traditionally large portion of the Proverbs is being assigned to Solomon because his name appeared in those places in the Proverbs.
  3. The name of the Egyptian text which has many parallel to Proverbs is the Maxims of Ptahhotpe and the Teaching for Merikare (Amenemope).
  4. The most frequent form of Proverbs occurring is the two-line proverb (distich).
  5. Parallelism is the use of successive verbal constructions in poetry or prose that correspond in grammatical structure, sound, meter, meaning, etc.
  6. Proverbs 10:1-15:33 has the most proverbs in antithetical parallelism.
  7. The purpose of the book of Proverbs is to know, to discern, to receive, to give, and to understand.
  8. The fundamental theological presumption of the biblical wisdom in the book of Proverb is to attain the fear or reverence of God and a commitment to put the Lord as the center of one’s life.
  9. There three sections in the preferred outline of the book of Proverbs.
  10. The range of division suggested for Proverbs 1-9 is seventeen.
  11.  The chapter outside of Proverb which best resembles Proverbs 1-9 is Amenemope.
  12. The Ten Commandments which are not found in Proverbs include idolatry and the law of the Sabbath.
  13. The theology of Proverbs focuses on the fear of the Lord which is the beginning of wisdom.

Chapter 42: The Book of Ecclesiastes

  1. Ecclesiastes was influenced by Greek philosophical thought.
  2. The author of Ecclesiastes appears to be Solomon because it contains wise saying of Solomon and contains many love languages as Solomon was noted for in his days and in the first chapter is referenced as son of David.
  3. The book of Ecclesiastes resembles the message in the book of Job.
  4. The phrase “Under the sun” appears no where else in the bible except in the book of Ecclesiastes.
  5. The main divisions in the book of Ecclesiastes include the theme, the quest for the meaning of life, wisdom admonition, and epilogues.
  6. Qoheleth’s view regarding the reality of God is negative.
  7. The attributes of God expressed in Ecclesiastes include He bears, He despises, He can be pleased, He can be angered, goodness, holiness, inscrutability, and justice.
  8. Ecclesiastes is similar to Proverbs in that both talk about wisdom or both are wisdom book.
  9. Ecclesiastes is similar to Job in that both talk about the human toil and meaning of life.
  10. The part of Genesis that Qoheleth seem to be aware of is the Genesis Chapter 3 concerning the fall of man and its consequence that follows.
  11. The key term in Ecclesiastes which Paul uses in Romans is futility mentioned in Romans 8:20.
  12. The key term in Ecclesiastes used in Genesis 4 is curse.

Chapter 43: The Book of the Song of Songs

  1. Solomon’s name appears seven times in the Song of Songs or Song of Solomon.
  2. The chapter in Kings which talks about Solomon’s wisdom is I Kings 4:33 or I Kings 10:28.
  3. The three main interpretative approaches to the book of Song of Songs include the allegorical, the cultic, and the lyrical/dramatic interpretations.
  4. The oldest interpretative approach to the book of Song of Songs is the allegorical interpretation.
  5. Hieros gamos is the sacred marriage enacted between two gods of the pagan origin.
  6. The three individuals in the three-character dramatic interpretation include Solomon, Shulamite woman, and Shulamite shepherd.
  7. The difficulty of the three-character view in the dramatic interpretation is that it often leads to an unannounced and abrupt division of the dialogue.
  8. The Song of Songs is recited in the Israelite festival of the Passover and it is still recited today by Jews.
  9. The type of imagery the author of Song of Songs employs more than anyone else in the Bible is nature expressing the mutual love of the man and the woman.
  10. The five sections outline to the book of Song of Songs include Love Is Anticipated (1:2-2:7), Found, and Lost – and Found (2:8-3:5), Love Is Consummated (3:6 -5:1), Lost – and Found (5:2 – 8:4), and Love Is Affirmed (8:5-14).
  11. The section which functions as the high point of the Song of Songs is the lover’s consummation in marriage.
  12. The Song of Songs is the commentary on the establishment of marriage in Genesis 1-2.

Chapter 44: The Book of Lamentations

  1. The unique about the critical view on history of the composition of the book of Lamentation suggest that Lamentation 5 being somehow distinct from the other four chapters may have been composed at a later time.
  2. The basis of the view that the book of Lamentation was composed before 538 BC is that it was the time the Persians allowed the Jews to return to their homeland.
  3. The major reason why Jeremiah is considered to be the writer of Lamentations is that both Jews and Christian tradition attest that the prophet Jeremiah was the author of Lamentation. Secondly, the LXX places Lamentations after Jeremiah and before Ezekiel and includes opening introduction to the book in first verse, attributing the composition of the book to Jeremiah.
  4. The major transgressions in Lamentations which led to the defeat of Jerusalem include corrupt prophets and priests, reliance on ineffective foreign allies etc.
  5. The stated reason for the fall of Jerusalem was the national sin committed.
  6. Chapter 3 in Lamentation has more verses.
  7. The unique about the critical view on Lamentations is that it is about laments over destruction.
  8. An acrostic poem is a poem which begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
  9. A qinah rhythm pattern is the poem which does not follow the acrostic poem pattern.
  10. The meaning of the image of Judah being compared to a woman in Lamentation is sinfulness.
  11. The type of Psalm Lamentations 3 is compared to is acrostic Psalm.
  12. The people of Judah were responsible for the destruction of Jerusalem as the result of their sins.

Chapter 17: The Book of Ruth

  1. OT scholars considered the composition of the book of Ruth to be late date because they considered the book to be the product of the postexilic period.
  2. The Book of Ruth is considered to be the early pre-exilic book because it was written after the exile.
  3. The book of Ruth was written by Samuel according to the Talmud.
  4. The section the book of Ruth appears in the Hebrew Bible is the writing section of the Old Testament.
  5. Ruth follows Proverbs in the Hebrew Bible because it introduces David, the main contributor to Psalms, while the later is because Proverbs ends with a discussion of the noble woman of which Ruth, the primary subject of the following book is the best illustration.
  6. The purpose of Ruth’s confronting Boaz at the threshing floor is that she has requested permission from her mother-in-law to go into the field of Bethlehem and glen among the ears of grain (Ruth 2:2; see Lev 19:9-10).
  7. The reason the nearer kinsmen redeemer refused to marry Ruth is that he already bought the land from Naomi and authorized Boaz to take responsibility of the aspect of marrying Ruth.
  8. The laws in the background of Ruth 4 are the laws of redeeming land and levirate marriage.
  9. The book of Ruth was written to keep and to maintain the family line of Jesus Christ.
  10. The verses in Ruth which are part of dialogue comprise of 55 verses.
  11. The pivoted event in the genealogy of Ruth is the preservation of the royal line the exodus.
  12. The Hebrew of the book of Ruth best fits into the historical period of the pre-exilic.
  13. The attribute of God repeated in Ruth is that God cares for his people in providing guidance and providence in meeting their physical needs.